2023 Spanish general election

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2023 Spanish general election

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All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 266) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Registered37,469,458 1.3%
Turnout24,952,447 (66.6%)
0.4 pp
  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Alberto Núñez Feijóo Pedro Sánchez Santiago Abascal
Party PP PSOE Vox
Leader since 2 April 2022 18 June 2017 20 September 2014
Leader's seat Madrid Madrid Madrid
Last election 89 seats, 20.8% 120 seats, 28.0% 52 seats, 15.1%
Seats won 137 121 33
Seat change 48 1 19
Popular vote 8,160,837 7,821,718 3,057,000
Percentage 33.1% 31.7% 12.4%
Swing 12.3 pp 3.7 pp 2.7 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
 
Leader Yolanda Díaz Gabriel Rufián Míriam Nogueras
Party Sumar ERC Junts
Leader since 2 April 2023 14 October 2019 12 March 2021
Leader's seat Madrid Barcelona Barcelona
Last election 38 seats, 15.3%[b] 13 seats, 3.6% 8 seats, 2.2%[a]
Seats won 31 7 7
Seat change 7 6 1
Popular vote 3,044,996 466,020 395,429
Percentage 12.3% 1.9% 1.6%
Swing 3.0 pp 1.7 pp 0.6 pp

Election results by Congress of Deputies constituency

Prime Minister before election

Pedro Sánchez
PSOE

Prime Minister after election

Pedro Sánchez
PSOE

The 2023 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 23 July 2023, to elect the 15th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 265 seats in the Senate.

The second government of Pedro Sánchez formed after the November 2019 Spanish general election consisted of a left-wing coalition between the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and Unidas Podemos, the country's first such nationwide government since the times of the Second Spanish Republic. The government's tenure was quickly overshadowed by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, along with its political and economic consequences. These consequences included the COVID-19 recession resulting from the extensive COVID-19 lockdowns implemented to curb the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as well as the economic impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

On the right side of the political spectrum, the People's Party (PP) underwent a leadership change at the 20th National Congress of the PP in February 2022, following an internal push by Galician and Madrilenian presidents, Alberto Núñez Feijóo and Isabel Díaz Ayuso, to remove party leader Pablo Casado. Since Feijóo's accession, the PP led opinion polls and finished first in the regional and local elections of 28 May 2023.[1] Far-right Vox has been open to support the PP in a hung parliament in exchange for government participation and programatic concessions.[2] The liberal Citizens party, once a leading force but having lost most of its support since 2019, decided not to run in this election, focusing its efforts on the 2024 European Parliament election instead.[3]

Despite speculation about an early election,[4][5] Pedro Sánchez, the incumbent prime minister of Spain, consistently expressed his intention to complete the legislature as scheduled in 2023.[6] He had initially set a tentative election date for December 2023, near the conclusion of the Spanish presidency of the Council of the European Union. The poor results of the left-wing bloc in the May 2023 regional and local elections, with losses to the PP and Vox in all but three regions, led to a surprise early dissolution of parliament in what was described as a gamble by Sánchez to wrong-foot the opposition.[7][8]

In the closest election since 1996, the PP saw the biggest increase in support and secured 137 seats in the Congress, but fell short of expectations which had placed it at around 150 to 160 seats. The PSOE placed second and overperformed polls by improving upon previous results, gaining over 1 million votes and scoring its best result since 2008 in terms of votes and vote share. Vox saw a decrease in its popular vote and seats, while Sumar won 31 seats in the Congress, a decrease in the popular vote and seats of its constituent parties. Neither bloc achieved a majority and, despite losses among Catalan independence parties, the balance of power was held by the Together for Catalonia (Junts) party of former Catalan president and fugitive Carles Puigdemont.[9] Following a failed attempt by Feijóo to secure investiture, Sánchez struck a deal with Junts and most of the parliamentary regionalist and peripheral nationalist parties, going on to win re-election in the first ballot of investiture scheduled on 16 November with an absolute majority of 179 votes in favour.[10]

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

The Spanish Cortes Generales were envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies had greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a prime minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possessed a few exclusive (yet limited in number) functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which were not subject to the Congress' override.[11][12] Voting for the Cortes Generales was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over 18 years of age and in full enjoyment of their political rights. Amendments to the electoral law in 2022 abolished the "begged" or expat vote system (Spanish: voto rogado), under which Spaniards abroad were required to apply for voter registration before being permitted to vote.[13] The expat vote system was attributed responsibility for a major decrease in the turnout of Spaniards abroad during the years it had been in force.[14]

For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list, proportional representation, with an electoral threshold of three percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain, with each being allocated an initial minimum of two seats and the remaining 248 being distributed in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla were allocated the two remaining seats, which were elected using plurality voting.[11][15] The use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude.[16]

As a result of the aforementioned allocation, each Congress multi-member constituency was entitled the following seats:[17]

Seats Constituencies
37 Madrid
32 Barcelona
16 Valencia(+1)
12 Alicante, Seville
11 Málaga
10 Murcia
9 Cádiz
8 A Coruña, Balearic Islands, Biscay, Las Palmas
7 Asturias, Granada, Pontevedra, Zaragoza, Santa Cruz de Tenerife
6 Almería, Córdoba, Gipuzkoa, Girona, Tarragona, Toledo
5 Badajoz(–1), Cantabria, Castellón, Ciudad Real, Huelva, Jaén, Navarre, Valladolid
4 Álava, Albacete, Burgos, Cáceres, La Rioja, León, Lleida, Lugo, Ourense, Salamanca
3 Ávila, Cuenca, Guadalajara, Huesca, Palencia, Segovia, Teruel, Zamora
2 Soria

For the Senate, 208 seats were elected using an open list partial block voting system, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors could vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces was allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts were the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each, and the smaller—Menorca, IbizaFormentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elected two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities could appoint at least one senator each and were entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.[11][15]

Election date[edit]

The term of each chamber of the Cortes Generales—the Congress and the Senate—expired four years from the date of their previous election, unless they were dissolved earlier. The election decree was required to be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of parliament and published on the following day in the Official State Gazette (BOE), with election day taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication. The previous election was held on 10 November 2019, which meant that the legislature's term would have expired on 10 November 2023. The election decree was required to be published in the BOE no later than 17 October 2023, with the election taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Sunday, 10 December 2023.[15][18]

The prime minister had the prerogative to dissolve both chambers at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no state of emergency was in force and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both chambers were to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process failed to elect a prime minister within a two-month period from the first ballot.[11] Barred this exception, there was no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate. Still, as of 2024 there has been no precedent of separate elections taking place under the 1978 Constitution.

Following his party's defeat in the 2021 Madrilenian regional election, Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez commented that there were still "32 months to go" ahead of the next general election, which meant that the election date was implied to be tentatively scheduled for January 2024.[19] This opened questions on the maximum timetable for holding a new election, with legal interpretations up until that point considering that the Cortes Generales expiry date was set four years from the previous election;[20][21] however, an interpretation that considered that the four-year timetable started counting from the chamber's first assembly or from the prime minister's investiture could push the election date into January or February 2024.[22][23] On 2 August 2022, Sánchez himself dispelled any doubts on this issue by announcing that the election would be held in December 2023,[24] a position reiterated on 27 March 2023 when he said that there were still "nine months left" in the current parliamentary term.[25]

After the 28 May 2023 regional and local elections, Sánchez announced the following day that the general election would be held on 23 July, with the election decree being published in the BOE the day after.[26] With only Sánchez's inner circle having prior knowledge of the announcement before it was made,[27] political parties from across the spectrum were caught by surprise,[28] with PP leaders in particular reportedly feeling upset over the election call as it prevented them from capitalising on their gains in the previous day's elections.[29] The IBEX 35 stock index also reacted negatively to the surprise election call.[30] The Cortes Generales were officially dissolved on 30 May 2023 after the publication of the dissolution decree in the BOE, setting the election date for 23 July and scheduling for both chambers to reconvene on 17 August.[17] This was the first time such an election was held in July since the 1839 Spanish general election.[31]

Parliamentary composition[edit]

The tables below show the composition of the parliamentary groups in both chambers at the time of dissolution.[32][33]

Parties and candidates[edit]

The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election call, whereas groupings of electors needed to secure the signature of at least one percent of the electorate in the constituencies for which they sought election, disallowing electors from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties, federations or coalitions that had not obtained a mandate in either chamber of the Cortes at the preceding election were required to secure the signature of at least 0.1 percent of electors in the aforementioned constituencies.[15] The electoral law provided for a special, simplified process for election re-runs, including a shortening of deadlines, the lifting of signature requirements if these had been already met for the immediately previous election and the possibility of maintaining lists and coalitions without needing to go through pre-election procedures again.

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Candidacy Parties and
alliances
Leading candidate Ideology Previous result Gov. Ref.
Votes (%) Con. Sen.
PSOE Pedro Sánchez Social democracy 28.00% 120 92 checkY [39]
[40]
PP Alberto Núñez Feijóo Conservatism
Christian democracy
20.81% 89 83 ☒N [41]
[42]
Vox
List
Santiago Abascal Right-wing populism
Ultranationalism
National conservatism
15.08% 52 2 ☒N
Sumar
List
Yolanda Díaz Progressivism
Left-wing populism
Green politics
15.34%[b] 38 0 checkY [43]
[44]
[45]
[46]
ERC Gabriel Rufián Catalan independence
Left-wing nationalism
Social democracy
3.63% 13 [e] ☒N
Junts Míriam Nogueras Catalan independence
Populism
2.19%[a] 8 3 ☒N [47]
[48]
PDeCAT–
E–CiU
List
Roger Montañola Catalan nationalism
Liberalism
☒N [49]
[50]
EAJ/PNV
List
Aitor Esteban Basque nationalism
Christian democracy
Social democracy
1.56% 6 9 ☒N [51]
EH Bildu
List
Mertxe Aizpurua Basque independence
Abertzale left
Socialism
1.14% 5 [e] ☒N [52]
CUP–PR
List
Albert Botran Catalan independence
Anti-capitalism
Socialism
1.02% 2 0 ☒N [53]
CCa
List
Cristina Valido Regionalism
Canarian nationalism
Centrism
0.51%[f] 2 0 ☒N [54]
[55]
[56]
NC–BC Luis Campos Canarian nationalism
Social democracy
☒N [57]
BNG Néstor Rego Galician nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
0.50% 1 0 ☒N
EV
List
Diego Loras Localism
Ruralism
0.08%[g] 1 2 ☒N [58]
[59]
[60]
[61]
ERC–
EH Bildu
Mirella Cortès Gès Left-wing nationalism Senate 12[e] ☒N [62]
ASG Fabián Chinea Insularism
Social democracy
Senate 1 ☒N [63]
EFS Juanjo Ferrer Progressivism Senate 1 ☒N [64]
AHI Javier Armas Insularism
Canarian nationalism
Centrism
Senate 0 ☒N [65]
UPN Alberto Catalán Regionalism
Conservatism
Christian democracy
New[h] ☒N [66]
[67]
[68]
[69]
Not contesting
CS Patricia Guasp Liberalism 6.80% 10 0 ☒N [70]
[71]
[72]
PRC José María Mazón Regionalism
Centrism
0.28% 1 0 ☒N [73]

Internal disputes emerged within the People's Party (PP) following Isabel Díaz Ayuso's landslide victory in the 2021 Madrilenian election, as the president of the Community of Madrid came to be seen by a party sector as a better candidate than Pablo Casado to face off Pedro Sánchez in a general election.[74][75] The conflict came to a head from September 2021 when both sides clashed for the control of the People's Party of the Community of Madrid, with Ayuso's possible rise to the presidency of the regional PP being seen by Casado's supporters as an immediate threat to his national leadership.[76][77] Following several months of a leadership that was perceived as poor and erratic, coupled with an erosion of popular support in opinion polls and a disappointing result in the 2022 Castilian-Leonese regional election, the crisis entered a new stage on 16 February 2022 when some media revealed an alleged plot of the party's national leadership to investigate Ayuso's family in search of compromising material—more specifically, alleged influence peddling in the awarding of public contracts to Ayuso's brother. After several days of public infighting between both Casado and Ayuso, Alberto Núñez Feijóo, the president of the Regional Government of Galicia, was reported as having agreed with the latter and other party regional presidents to become the party's new leader and replace Casado, who was said to be willing to hold on until the 20th National Congress of the People's Party scheduled for July.[78][79][80] On 22 February, Casado's resignation was announced after he was abandoned by most of the party's leadership and public officers.[41]

As a result of Pablo Iglesias's farewell from active politics in May 2021, Yolanda Díaz, the Minister of Labour and from July 2021 also the Second Deputy Prime Minister of Spain, came to be widely regarded as Iglesias's presumptive successor as prime ministerial candidate in the next general election.[43] Díaz expressed her will to shape a new electoral platform transcending political parties, as well as the Unidas Podemos brand,[81][82] aiming to secure the support of ideologically close forces, such as En Comú Podem (ECP), Compromís, and Más Madrid/Más País, while giving a prevalent role to civil society.[83][84][85] The platform saw an advance unity act during an event to be held on 13 November 2021, with the participation of a number of women representative of the various political spaces that could eventually join it: Díaz herself, Barcelona mayor Ada Colau (ECP), Valencian vice-president Mónica Oltra (Compromís), Madrilenian opposition leader Mónica García (Más Madrid), and Ceutan councillor Fatima Hamed (from the Movement for Dignity and Citizenship, MDyC); the absence of Podemos members in the event, most notably of Equality and Social Rights ministers Irene Montero and Ione Belarra, was seen as evidence of the growing diminished role of Unidas Podemos within the platform.[86] Díaz's-led left-wing alliance was also well received by Sánchez, who saw it as important for the "progressive space" to be in "top shape" for his government to be able to maintain and expand its majority in the next election.[87] While Broad Front has been frequently used in the media to refer to Díaz's platform,[88][89] it has been commented that Díaz herself has rejected the use of this name for its connections with similar brandings used by left-wing populist alliances in Latin America.[90] On 18 May 2022, it was announced that Díaz's platform would go under the name Sumar (English: Unite).[91]

In September 2021, citizen collectives of the Empty Spain (Spanish: España Vacía or España Vaciada), a coined term to refer to Spain's rural and largely unpopulated interior provinces,[92] agreed to look forward to formulas to contest the next elections in Spain, inspired by the success of the Teruel Existe candidacy (Spanish for "Teruel Exists") in the November 2019 general election.[58] By November 2021, it was confirmed that over 160 collectives and associations from about 30 Spanish provinces had committed themselves to finalise the electoral platform before January 2022.[59] It then contested the 2022 Castilian-Leonese regional election, with mixed results; it was a success in the province of Soria, where the Soria Now! (SY) platform is based, but it was a disappointment elsewhere.[93]

On 30 May 2023, the national executive of Citizens, which had won 10 seats in 2019, announced that the party would not contest the general election following its poor results in the regional and local elections.[72] This decision was criticised by a number of its elected representatives, including incumbent MP and former party leadership contender Edmundo Bal.[94]

On 8 June 2023, as a result of the bad result of the Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC) in the 2023 Cantabrian regional election, the party leader Miguel Ángel Revilla announced that the PRC would not run in the elections, as agreed by its Executive Committee.[73]

Timetable[edit]

The key dates are listed below. All times are CET, while the Canary Islands use WET (UTC+0) instead.[15][95]

  • 29 May: Felipe VI issued the election decree with the countersign of the prime minister after deliberation in the Council of Ministers.[17]
  • 30 May: Formal dissolution of the Cortes Generales and beginning of a suspension period of events for the inauguration of public works, services or projects.
  • 2 June: Initial constitution of provincial and zone electoral commissions.
  • 9 June: Deadline for parties and federations intending to enter into a coalition to inform the relevant electoral commission.
  • 19 June: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions, and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates to the relevant electoral commission.
  • 21 June: Submitted lists of candidates are provisionally published in the Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE).
  • 24 June: Deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad (CERA) and for citizens temporarily absent from Spain to apply for voting.
  • 25 June: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions, and groupings of electors to rectify irregularities in their lists.
  • 26 June: Official proclamation of valid submitted lists of candidates.
  • 27 June: Proclaimed lists are published in the BOE.
  • 7 July: Official start of electoral campaigning.[17]
  • 13 July: Deadline to apply for postal voting.
  • 18 July: Official start of legal ban on electoral opinion polling publication, dissemination or reproduction and deadline for CERA citizens to vote by mail.
  • 19 July: Deadline for postal and temporarily absent voters to issue their votes.
  • 21 July: Last day of official electoral campaigning and deadline for CERA citizens to vote in a ballot box in the relevant consular office or division[17]
  • 22 July: Official 24-hour ban on political campaigning prior to the general election (election silence).
  • 23 July: Polling day (polling stations open at 9 am and close at 8 pm or once voters present in a queue at/outside the polling station at 8 pm have cast their vote). Provisional counting of votes starts immediately.[96]
  • 26 July: General counting of votes, including the counting of CERA votes.
  • 29 July: Deadline for the general counting of votes to be carried out by the relevant electoral commission.
  • 7 August: Deadline for elected members to be proclaimed by the relevant electoral commission.
  • 17 August: Deadline for both chambers of the Cortes Generales to be re-assembled (the election decree determines this date, which for the 2023 election was set for 17 August).[17]
  • 16 September: Final deadline for definitive results to be published in the BOE.

Campaign[edit]

Issues[edit]

An Ipsos poll published in July 2023 showed that most of the respondents saw economic issues as most important, followed by unemployment and healthcare.[97] BBC News reported that LGBT issues have been also distinguished during the campaign period.[98]

During the campaign period, Vox campaigned on lowering the income tax, reducing public spending, and introducing tougher anti-migration laws.[99][100][101] Vox was also in favour of reducing powers of Spain's autonomous communities, rolling back abortion, LGBT, and women's rights, and pulling Spain out of the Paris Agreement.[99][102][103] Sonia Gallego of Al Jazeera said that Vox's rhetoric "will put it on a collision course with those separatist movements, not just in the Basque Country but Catalonia as well".[104] Vox received support from Brothers of Italy, led by Giorgia Meloni, during the campaign period.[98]

PP campaigned on lowering taxes and introducing policies that would boost foreign investments, with Feijóo trying to portray himself as a moderate.[102][105] Feijóo was also faced with criticism from Sumar due to his past ties with drug trafficker Marcial Dorado [es] when he served in the Galician government in the 1990s.[104][106] Feijóo responded by saying that Dorado "had been a smuggler [but] never a drug trafficker" when he knew him.[100] PP and Vox also campaigned on ending Sanchismo, policies introduced by Sánchez and his coalition government, with Feijóo stating that it his main priority.[104][107] Both parties also accused Sanchez of overly relying on separatist parties to pass key legislation and pardoning jailed leaders. The catchphrase Let Txapote vote for you was popularized within this context.[108]

PSOE's Sánchez has portrayed the election as a "showdown between the forces of progress and the forces of reactionary conservatism".[100] He also criticised the relationship between PP and Vox.[100] PP criticised PSOE's sexual assault law (Ley del solo sí es sí), which was introduced in August 2022, and PSOE's relationship with minority and pro-independence parties.[98][100][109] At least 104 convicted sexual offenders were released due to the law; Sánchez apologised for the loopholes in the law.[110]

Sumar campaigned on criticising Vox and focusing on issues regarding climate change and introducing a shorter workweek.[111] In order to challenge social inequality, Díaz proposed a €20,000 "universal inheritance" policy for those over 18 years old which could be spent on studies or creating a business.[98][112] As part of its campaign policy, Sumar also campaigned on increasing taxes on the rich.[112]

Party slogans[edit]

Party or alliance Original slogan English translation Ref.
PSOE « Adelante. España avanza » "Forward. Spain advances" [113]
PP « Es el momento » "It is time" [114]
Vox « Lo que importa » "What matters" [115]
Sumar Main: « Es por ti »
Sumar–ECP: « A favor teu »
Main: "It is for you"
Sumar–ECP: "In your favor"
[116]
ERC « Defensa Catalunya! » "Defend Catalonia!" [117]
Junts « Ja n'hi ha prou » "Enough is enough" [118]
PDeCAT–E–CiU « Ara toca » "Now it's time" [119]
EAJ/PNV « Euskadiren ahotsa. Con voz propia » "Basque Country's voice. With its own voice" [120]
EH Bildu « Berriro. Egingo dugu » "We will do it. Again" [121]
CUP–PR « Plantem cara » "Let's face it" [122]
CCa « Coalición por Canarias » "Coalition for the Canaries" [123]
NC–BC « Elegimos Canarias. Siempre » "We choose the Canaries. Always" [124]
BNG « Que Galiza conte! Con máis forza! » "Make Galicia count! With more strength!" [125]
UPN « No cambies la fiesta por nada » "Don't trade the party for anything." [126]

Election debates[edit]

2023 Spanish general election debates
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present[i]    S  Surrogate[j]    NI  Not invited   I  Invited    A  Absent invitee 
PSOE PP Vox Sumar ERC PNV EH Bildu Audience Ref.
10 July Atresmedia Ana Pastor
Vicente Vallés
P
Sánchez
P
Feijóo
NI NI NI NI NI 46.5%
(5,910,000)
[127]
[128]
13 July RTVE[k] Xabier Fortes P
López
P
Gamarra
P
Espinosa
S
Vidal
P
Rufián
P
Esteban
P
Matute
18.6%
(1,893,000)
[129]
[130]
19 July RTVE Xabier Fortes P
Sánchez
A P
Abascal
P
Díaz
NI NI NI 34.6%
(4,155,000)
[131]
Opinion polls
Candidate viewed as "performing best" or "most convincing" in each debate
Debate Polling firm/Commissioner PSOE PP Tie None Question?
10 July 2023 ElectoPanel/Electomanía[132] 35.8 52.5 11.7
Sigma Dos/El Mundo[133] 45.8 54.2
40dB/Prisa (1st wave)[134] 31.4 31.1 18.0 19.4
Sociométrica/El Español[135] 30.4 58.0 11.6
Simple Lógica/elDiario.es[136] 31.2 50.1 18.8
40dB/Prisa (2nd wave)[137] 21.5 44.2 26.3 8.0
Invymark/laSexta[138] 43.8 54.4 1.8

Opinion polls[edit]

Local regression trend line of poll results from 10 November 2019 to 23 July 2023, with each line corresponding to a political party.

Polling aggregations[edit]

Polling aggregator Last update PSOE PP Vox CS Lead
2023 election 23 Jul 2023 31.7
121
33.1
137
12.4
33
[l] [l] 12.3
31
1.4
El Periódico[139] 23 Jul 2023 28.8
104
36.0
140
13.2
37
[l] [l] 13.1
34
7.2
El País[140] 18 Jul 2023 28.3
108
34.1
142
12.8
35
[l] [l] 13.2
34
5.8
Electocracia[141] 17 Jul 2023 28.2
107/109
34.7
143/145
13.0
34/36
[l] [l] 12.6
30/32
6.5
Electográfica[142] 17 Jul 2023 28.1
105
34.4
140
12.7
35
[l] [l] 13.2
37
6.3
El Electoral[143] 17 Jul 2023 28.5
106
34.0
138
12.9
37
[l] [l] 13.1
37
5.5
El Plural[144] 17 Jul 2023 28.2
109
33.9
142
13.1
33
[l] [l] 12.9
34
5.7
Europe Elects[145] 17 Jul 2023 28.5 34.5 12.9 [l] [l] 13.1 6.0
Politico[146] 17 Jul 2023 28.0 34.0 13.0 [l] [l] 13.0 6.0
PolitPro[147] 17 Jul 2023 27.9 33.7 13.4 [l] [l] 13.3 5.8
Porcentual[148] 17 Jul 2023 28.4
109
34.0
142
12.7
34
[l] [l] 13.3
33
5.6
Electomanía[149] 16 Jul 2023 28.5 34.6 12.8 [l] [l] 12.9 5.5
Nov. 2019 election 10 Nov 2019 28.0
120
20.8
89
15.1
52
12.9
35
6.8
10
2.4
3
[m] 7.2

Voter turnout[edit]

Citizens voting on the election day

The table below shows registered vote turnout on election day without including voters from the Census of Absent-Residents (CERA).

Region Time
14:00 18:00 20:00
2019 2023 +/– 2019 2023 +/– 2019 2023 +/–
Andalusia 35.80% 42.05% +6.25 54.85% 53.18% –1.67 68.25% 68.99% +0.74
Aragon 41.18% 42.07% +0.89 57.91% 52.56% –5.35 71.50% 73.02% +1.52
Asturias 34.42% 39.04% +4.62 53.50% 54.11% +0.61 65.48% 71.13% +5.65
Balearic Islands 30.95% 37.27% +6.32 47.40% 48.58% +1.18 58.71% 63.60% +4.89
Basque Country 40.18% 37.20% –2.98 57.60% 52.43% –5.17 68.91% 67.61% –1.30
Canary Islands 27.08% 28.90% +1.82 44.36% 45.39% +1.03 60.46% 63.59% +3.13
Cantabria 39.12% 42.99% +3.87 59.28% 60.44% +1.16 70.83% 75.35% +4.52
Castile and León 37.29% 41.37% +4.08 56.70% 54.84% –1.86 71.37% 74.42% +3.05
Castilla–La Mancha 38.07% 44.70% +6.63 57.44% 56.28% –1.16 71.36% 74.42% +3.06
Catalonia 40.58% 36.79% –3.79 59.88% 48.72% –11.16 72.17% 65.42% –6.75
Extremadura 37.17% 45.16% +7.99 54.41% 55.81% +1.40 69.12% 73.70% +4.58
Galicia 31.96% 39.01% +7.05 53.26% 55.96% +2.70 66.62% 73.14% +6.52
La Rioja 40.42% 45.75% +5.33 57.45% 57.12% –0.33 71.27% 74.88% +3.61
Madrid 40.98% 40.82% –0.16 61.50% 53.69% –7.81 74.54% 74.14% –0.40
Murcia 39.01% 44.24% +5.23 57.89% 55.08% –2.81 69.99% 70.78% +0.79
Navarre 39.38% 41.27% +1.89 56.46% 51.76% –4.70 69.21% 69.74% +0.53
Valencian Community 42.51% 46.24% +3.73 59.97% 57.93% –2.04 71.74% 73.59% +1.85
Ceuta 27.27% 27.44% +0.17 43.77% 39.30% –4.47 56.16% 55.64% –0.52
Melilla 24.61% 23.29% –1.32 38.98% 31.93% –7.05 57.12% 49.80% –7.32
Total 37.92% 40.48% +2.56 56.85% 53.13% –3.72 69.87% 70.40% +0.53
Sources[150]

Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Summary of the 23 July 2023 Congress of Deputies election results
Parties and alliances Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
People's Party (PP) 8,160,837 33.06 +12.25 137 +48
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 7,821,718 31.68 +3.68 121 +1
Vox (Vox) 3,057,000 12.38 –2.70 33 –19
Unite (Sumar)1 3,044,996 12.33 –3.01 31 –7
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 466,020 1.89 –1.74 7 –6
Together for Catalonia (Junts)2 395,429 1.60 n/a 7 +3
Basque Country Gather (EH Bildu) 335,129 1.36 +0.22 6 +1
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 277,289 1.12 –0.44 5 –1
Animalist Party with the Environment (PACMA)3 169,237 0.69 –0.25 0 ±0
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 153,995 0.62 +0.12 1 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CCa)4 116,363 0.47 n/a 1 ±0
Popular Unity Candidacy–For Rupture (CUP–PR) 99,644 0.40 –0.62 0 –2
Navarrese People's Union (UPN)5 52,188 0.21 n/a 1 –1
Workers' Front (FO) 46,274 0.19 New 0 ±0
New Canaries–Canarian Bloc (NC–BC)4 45,595 0.18 n/a 0 –1
Empty Spain (España Vaciada) 36,793 0.15 +0.07 0 –1
Aragon Exists–Exists Coalition (Existe)6 20,440 0.08 ±0.00 0 –1
Soria Now! (SY) 9,697 0.04 New 0 ±0
Empty Spain (España Vaciada) 5,472 0.02 New 0 ±0
Empty SpainCastilian PartyCommoners' Land (EV–PCAS–TC) 1,184 0.00 New 0 ±0
Catalan European Democratic Party–CiU Space (PDeCAT–E–CiU)2 32,016 0.13 n/a 0 –4
Zero Cuts (Recortes Cero) 23,421 0.09 –0.05 0 ±0
For a Fairer World (PUM+J) 23,290 0.09 –0.02 0 ±0
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 23,201 0.09 +0.05 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Workers of Spain (PCTE) 18,218 0.07 +0.02 0 ±0
Yes to the Future (GBai) 9,938 0.04 –0.01 0 ±0
Forward Andalusia (Adelante Andalucía) 9,191 0.04 New 0 ±0
Blank Seats to Leave Empty Seats (EB) 8,448 0.03 +0.01 0 ±0
Jaén Deserves More (JM+) 8,293 0.03 New 0 ±0
For Ávila (XAV) 7,362 0.03 +0.01 0 ±0
Extremaduran Bloc (BQEx) 5,807 0.02 New 0 ±0
Walking Together (CJ) 5,620 0.02 New 0 ±0
Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS) 4,683 0.02 +0.02 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 4,173 0.02 New 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 2,902 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
For Huelva (XH) 1,931 0.01 New 0 ±0
Let's Go Palencia (VP) 1,917 0.01 New 0 ±0
Zamora Yes (ZSí) 1,843 0.01 New 0 ±0
Burgalese Way (VB) 1,774 0.01 New 0 ±0
For My Region (Por Mi Región)7 1,698 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Canaries NowCommunist Party of the Canarian People (ANCUPPCPC)8 1,674 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Self-employed Party (Partido Autónomos) 1,446 0.01 New 0 ±0
Valencian Welfare State (EVB) 1,442 0.01 New 0 ±0
Coalition for Melilla (CpM) 1,298 0.01 –0.03 0 ±0
Together for Granada (JxG) 1,218 0.00 New 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL) 964 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
We Are Cáceres (Somos Cc) 963 0.00 New 0 ±0
Almerienses–Regionalists for Almería (ALM) 874 0.00 New 0 ±0
Federation of Independents of Aragon (FIA) 506 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Seniors in Action (3e) 484 0.00 New 0 ±0
Castilian Unity (UdCa) 463 0.00 New 0 ±0
Alive Land Palencia Independent Group (GIPTV) 366 0.00 New 0 ±0
State of Spain Unionist Party (PUEDE) 269 0.00 New 0 ±0
Catalonia Among Neighbors (EVR) 265 0.00 New 0 ±0
Free (LB) 263 0.00 New 0 ±0
United Yes (Unidos SI) 253 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
System Money Referendum (+RDS+) 165 0.00 New 0 ±0
Citizens of Democratic Centre (CCD) 153 0.00 New 0 ±0
Civic Force (Fuerza Cívica) 115 0.00 New 0 ±0
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs) n/a n/a –6.80 0 –10
Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC) n/a n/a –0.28 0 –1
Blank ballots 200,673 0.81 –0.09
Total 24,688,087 350 ±0
Valid votes 24,688,087 98.94 –0.04
Invalid votes 264,360 1.06 +0.04
Votes cast / turnout 24,952,447 66.59 +0.36
Abstentions 12,517,011 33.41 –0.36
Registered voters 37,469,458
Sources[151]
Footnotes:
Popular vote
PP
33.06%
PSOE
31.68%
Vox
12.38%
Sumar
12.33%
ERC
1.89%
Junts
1.60%
EH Bildu
1.36%
EAJ/PNV
1.12%
BNG
0.62%
CCa
0.47%
UPN
0.21%
Others
2.46%
Blank ballots
0.81%
Seats
PP
39.14%
PSOE
34.57%
Vox
9.43%
Sumar
8.86%
ERC
2.00%
Junts
2.00%
EH Bildu
1.71%
EAJ/PNV
1.43%
BNG
0.29%
CCa
0.29%
UPN
0.29%

Senate[edit]

Summary of the 23 July 2023 Senate of Spain election results
Parties and alliances Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
People's Party (PP) 23,090,254 33.15 +6.31 120 +37
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)1 21,595,560 31.00 +0.40 72 –20
Unite (Sumar)2 7,372,888 10.58 –3.31 0 ±0
Vox (Vox) 7,106,199 10.20 +5.12 0 –2
Left for Independence (ERCEH Bildu)3 2,798,722 4.02 –2.11 7 –5
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC–Esquerres per la Independència) 1,804,454 2.59 –2.21 3 –8
Basque Country Gather (EH Bildu–Independentzia Ezkerretik) 994,268 1.43 +0.10 4 +3
Together for Catalonia (Junts)4 1,229,445 1.76 n/a 1 –2
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 848,638 1.22 –0.59 4 –5
Animalist Party with the Environment (PACMA)5 649,417 0.93 –0.61 0 ±0
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 505,311 0.73 +0.08 0 ±0
Canarian Coalition (CCa)6 201,667 0.29 n/a 0 ±0
Navarrese People's Union (UPN)7 184,531 0.26 n/a 1 –2
Empty Spain (España Vaciada) 139,652 0.20 +0.11 0 –2
Exists Coalition (Existe)8 74,438 0.11 +0.02 0 –2
Soria Now! (SY) 30,825 0.04 New 0 ±0
Empty Spain (España Vaciada) 16,239 0.02 New 0 ±0
Asturias Exists–Empty Spain (Asturias Existe EV) 11,406 0.02 New 0 ±0
Empty SpainCastilian PartyCommoners' Land (EV–PCAS–TC) 6,744 0.01 New 0 ±0
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 93,328 0.13 +0.06 0 ±0
Zero Cuts (Recortes Cero) 82,120 0.12 –0.08 0 ±0
New Canaries–Canarian Bloc (NC–BC)6 65,915 0.09 n/a 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Workers of Spain (PCTE) 64,644 0.09 +0.05 0 ±0
For a Fairer World (PUM+J) 59,718 0.09 –0.02 0 ±0
Catalan European Democratic Party–CiU Space (PDeCAT–E–CiU)4 47,783 0.07 n/a 0 ±0
Blank Seats to Leave Empty Seats (EB) 40,242 0.06 +0.02 0 ±0
Yes to the Future (GBai) 36,282 0.05 –0.03 0 ±0
Forward Andalusia (Adelante Andalucía) 32,067 0.05 New 0 ±0
For Ávila (XAV) 27,886 0.04 +0.01 0 ±0
Ibiza and Formentera in the Senate (PSOESMREUAra Eivissa)9 25,935 0.04 ±0.00 1 ±0
Extremaduran Bloc (BQEx) 24,544 0.04 New 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 17,954 0.03 New 0 ±0
Walking Together (CJ) 16,775 0.02 New 0 ±0
Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS) 16,639 0.02 +0.01 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 14,229 0.02 –0.02 0 ±0
Jaén Deserves More (JM+) 14,067 0.02 New 0 ±0
For Huelva (XH) 9,587 0.01 New 0 ±0
Together for Granada (JxG) 8,272 0.01 New 0 ±0
For My Region (Por Mi Región)10 7,624 0.01 –0.01 0 ±0
Zamora Yes (ZSí) 7,441 0.01 New 0 ±0
Burgalese Way (VB) 5,398 0.01 New 0 ±0
We Are Cáceres (Somos Cc) 4,627 0.01 New 0 ±0
Valencian Welfare State (EVB) 3,902 0.01 New 0 ±0
Gomera Socialist Group (ASG) 3,820 0.01 ±0.00 1 ±0
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL) 3,430 0.00 –0.01 0 ±0
Canaries Now–Communist Party of the Canarian People (ANCUPPCPC)11 3,385 0.00 –0.01 0 ±0
Let's Go Palencia (VP) 3,158 0.00 New 0 ±0
Coalition for Melilla (CpM) 2,615 0.00 –0.03 0 ±0
Almerienses–Regionalists for Almería (ALM) 2,503 0.00 New 0 ±0
Alive Land Palencia Independent Group (GIPTV) 2,464 0.00 New 0 ±0
Federation of Independents of Aragon (FIA) 2,129 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Independent Herrenian Group (AHI) 2,049 0.00 New 1 +1
Castilian Unity (UdCa) 1,747 0.00 New 0 ±0
Catalonia Among Neighbors (EVR) 1,662 0.00 New 0 ±0
Seniors in Action (3e) 627 0.00 New 0 ±0
Free (LB) 602 0.00 New 0 ±0
State of Spain Unionist Party (PUEDE) 477 0.00 New 0 ±0
Herrenian Assembly (AH) 360 0.00 New 0 ±0
Citizens of Democratic Centre (CCD) 334 0.00 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots[n] 380,580 1.60 –0.29
Total 69,659,927 208 ±0
Valid votes 23,854,321 97.71 +0.01
Invalid votes 559,603 2.29 –0.01
Votes cast / turnout 24,413,924 65.16 –0.75
Abstentions 13,052,508 34.84 +0.75
Registered voters 37,466,432
Sources[152]
Footnotes:
Popular vote
PP
33.15%
PSOE
31.00%
Sumar
10.58%
Vox
10.20%
IPLI
4.02%
Junts
1.76%
EAJ/PNV
1.22%
UPN
0.26%
EFS
0.04%
ASG
0.01%
AHI
0.00%
Others
3.19%
Blank ballots
1.60%
Seats
PP
57.69%
PSOE
34.62%
IPLI
3.37%
EAJ/PNV
1.92%
Junts
0.48%
UPN
0.48%
EFS
0.48%
ASG
0.48%
AHI
0.48%

Aftermath[edit]

37,466,432 voters had the right to vote in the general election.[153] The election results showed that PP won 33.1 percent of popular vote and 137 seats in the Congress of Deputies, while PSOE won 31.7 percent of popular vote and 121 seats in the Congress of Deputies.[154][155] Despite the PP gaining 48 seats and increasing its vote share by over 12 points, its result was well below expectations to reach above 150 or 160 seats and insufficient to secure a right-wing majority to govern.[156][157][158] Conversely, the PSOE overperformed polls by improving upon previous results, gaining almost 1 million votes—the most votes gained by the prime minister's party in Spain after a full first term in office—scoring its best result since the 2008 Spanish general election in terms of votes and vote share.[159][160]

Vox won 33 seats, losing 19 seats that it won in the previous election, while Sumar won 31 seats.[161][162] In part due to a campaign led by the Assemblea Nacional Catalana encouraging pro-Catalan independence voters to boycott the election,[163][164][165] pro-independence parties lost 46% of the votes they won in the previous election, materializing in the loss of 9 seats and the exit from the Congress of the anti-capitalists of the Popular Unity Candidacy.[166]

Government formation[edit]

During the campaign period, news agencies mentioned that in case of a PP victory, it would have to rely on Vox for a parliamentary majority,[100][102][167] despite Feijóo saying that he would prefer a minority government instead.[105][168] The election results later showed that even PP and Vox together would not have enough seats to form a majority, considering that they won 170 seats in total.[154][161][169] Both PP and PSOE claimed victory.[154] If no government is formed, a snap election could take place, which would constitute a record third straight time in which regular general elections were inconclusive and required a following snap election.[159] Due to the underperformance of the right-wing bloc, Feijóo's leadership was questioned by the Spanish right-wing; Feijóo went from offering a pact to the PSOE to warning of a rupture if Sánchez is confirmed prime minister with the support of separatists.[170]

In the wake of the election results, the Catalan party Junts—led by former Catalan president and fugitive Carles Puigdemont—was widely seen as being the kingmaker, with both blocs having to rely on their favourable vote to form a government, likely coupled with further concessions on Catalan independence.[171][172][173] The election of the president of the Congress of Deputies—or speaker—on 17 August saw the PSOE candidate Francina Armengol winning in a vote which was seen to boost Sanchez's hopes of re-election.[174][175]

King Felipe VI summoned the political parties for a round of talks on 21 and 22 August to decide whether to nominate a candidate for investiture.[176] The king faced a difficult choice as, for the first time in the democratic era, two candidates—Sánchez and Feijóo—were equally intent on being nominated.[177] Feijóo's intentions were unchanged by his recent parliamentary setback, despite calls from some factions within his party asking him to "leave the fiction" of insisting that he had the required support for his investiture.[178][179]

Despite Feijóo's investiture being widely expected to fail, the King nominated him as candidate on 22 August.[180] He justified his decision by stating that the PP had won the most seats and that, since no other clear majority for investiture had been evidenced during the round of talks, the tradition of nominating the leader of the largest party should continue, while allowing for the fact that other candidates could be nominated if their investiture attempt was unsuccessful.[181][182]

Investiture
Alberto Núñez Feijóo (PP)
Ballot → 27 September 2023 29 September 2023[o]
Required majority → 176 out of 350 ☒N Simple ☒N
Yes
172 / 350
172 / 350
No
178 / 350
177 / 350
Abstentions
0 / 350
0 / 350
Absentees
0 / 350
0 / 350
Sources[183]

Following Feijóo's defeat, King Felipe VI summoned all parties to a new round of talks on 2 and 3 October, after which he nominated Pedro Sánchez as the next candidate to attempt the investiture.[184][185] Upon his nomination, Sánchez commented that he was "not going to a false investiture", adding that everything agreed to secure the investiture would be "within the Constitution" and that agreements would be "transparent and known", considered to be a reference to criticisms of the amnesty proposed by pro-Catalan independence parties.[186]

Investiture
Pedro Sánchez (PSOE)
Ballot → 16 November 2023
Required majority → 176 out of 350 checkY
Yes
179 / 350
No
171 / 350
Abstentions
0 / 350
Absentees
0 / 350
Sources[187]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Results for JxCat–Junts in the November 2019 election.
  2. ^ a b Results for Unidas Podemos (12.86%, 35 deputies and 0 senators), Más País (2.40%, 3 deputies and 0 senators), Més Esquerra (0.08%, 0 seats) and CHA (0.01%, 0 seats) in the November 2019 election.
  3. ^ Meri Pita, former Podemos legislator;[35] Pablo Cambronero, former CS legislator.[36]
  4. ^ Ruth Goñi and Emilio Argüeso, former CS legislators.[38]
  5. ^ a b c ERC (11 senators) and EH Bildu (1 senator) joined the IPLI alliance ahead of the 2023 Senate election.
  6. ^ Results for CCa–PNC–NC in the November 2019 election.
  7. ^ Results for ¡Teruel Existe! in the November 2019 election.
  8. ^ UPN (2 deputies and 1 senator) contested the November 2019 election within the NA+ alliance.
  9. ^ Denotes a main invitee attending the event.
  10. ^ Denotes a main invitee not attending the event, sending a surrogate in their place.
  11. ^ Parliamentary spokespersons' debate.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Within Sumar.
  13. ^ Within Unidas Podemos.
  14. ^ The percentage of blank ballots is calculated over the official number of valid votes cast, irrespective of the total number of votes shown as a result of adding up the individual results for each party.
  15. ^ 1 Junts MP involuntarily cast an invalid ballot in the 29 September vote.

References[edit]

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  4. ^ Mármol, Iolanda (5 November 2021). "Sánchez planifica el semestre europeo de 2023 para apurar la legislatura". El Periódico de España (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 November 2021.
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