1919 Spanish general election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1919 Spanish general election

← 1918 1 June 1919 (Congress)[a]
15 June 1919 (Senate)
1920 →

All 409 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 180 (of 360) seats in the Senate
205 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Turnout2,439,463 (64.2%)
  First party Second party Third party
Leader Eduardo Dato Antonio Maura Manuel García Prieto
Party Conservative MauristCiervist Liberal Democratic
Leader since 1913 1913 1913
Leader's seat Vitoria Palma Senator for life
Last election 104 (C· 47 (S) 51 (C· 15 (S)[b] 89 (C· 42 (S)
Seats won 95 (C· 54 (S) 105 (C· 38 (S) 51 (C· 26 (S)
Seat change 9 (C· 7 (S) 54 (C· 23 (S) 38 (C· 16 (S)

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Leader Count of Romanones Santiago Alba Francesc Cambó
Party Romanonist Liberal Left Regionalist
Leader since 1912 1917 1917
Leader's seat Guadalajara Albuñol Barcelona
Last election 40 (C· 23 (S) 33 (C· 17 (S) 22 (C· 8 (S)
Seats won 41 (C· 22 (S) 31 (C· 10 (S) 14 (C· 7 (S)
Seat change 1 (C· 1 (S) 2 (C· 7 (S) 8 (C· 1 (S)

Prime Minister before election

Antonio Maura

Prime Minister after election

Joaquín Sánchez de Toca

The 1919 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 1 June (for the Congress of Deputies)[a] and on Sunday, 15 June 1919 (for the Senate), to elect the 18th Cortes of the Kingdom of Spain in the Restoration period. All 409 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 180 of 360 seats in the Senate.


Electoral system[edit]

The Spanish Cortes were envisaged as "co-legislative bodies", based on a nearly perfect bicameral system. Both the Congress of Deputies and the Senate had legislative, control and budgetary functions, sharing equal powers except for laws on contributions or public credit, where the Congress had preeminence.[2][3] Voting for the Cortes was on the basis of compulsory, universal manhood suffrage, which comprised all national males over 25 years of age, having at least a two-year residency in a municipality and in full enjoyment of their civil rights. Those older than 70, the clergy, first instance judges and public notaries were exempt from this obligation.[4][5]

For the Congress of Deputies, 98 seats were elected using a partial block voting system in 28 multi-member constituencies, with the remaining 311 being elected under a one-round first-past-the-post system in single-member districts. Candidates winning a plurality in each constituency were elected. In constituencies electing ten seats or more, electors could vote for no more than four candidates less than the number of seats to be allocated; in those with more than eight seats and up to ten, for no more than three less; in those with more than four seats and up to eight, for no more than two less; in those with more than one seat and up to four, for no more than one less; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Additionally, in those districts where the number of candidates was equal or less than the number of seats up for election, candidates were to be automatically elected. The Congress was entitled to one member per each 50,000 inhabitants, with each multi-member constituency being allocated a fixed number of seats. The law also provided for by-elections to fill seats vacated throughout the legislature.[2][6][7][8]

As a result of the aforementioned allocation, each Congress multi-member constituency was entitled the following seats:[7][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

Seats Constituencies
8 Madrid
7 Barcelona
5 Palma, Seville
4 Cartagena
3 Alicante, Almería, Badajoz, Burgos, Cádiz, Córdoba, Gran Canaria, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Jerez de la Frontera, La Coruña, Lugo, Málaga, Murcia, Oviedo, Pamplona, Santander, Tarragona, Tenerife, Valencia, Valladolid, Zaragoza

For the Senate, 180 seats were indirectly elected by the local councils and major taxpayers, with electors voting for delegates instead of senators. Elected delegates—equivalent in number to one-sixth of the councillors in each local council—would then vote for senators using a write-in, two-round majority voting system. The provinces of Barcelona, Madrid and Valencia were allocated four seats each, whereas each of the remaining provinces was allocated three seats, for a total of 150. The remaining 30 were allocated to special districts comprising a number of institutions, electing one seat each—the archdioceses of Burgos, Granada, Santiago de Compostela, Seville, Tarragona, Toledo, Valencia, Valladolid and Zaragoza; the Royal Spanish Academy; the royal academies of History, Fine Arts of San Fernando, Exact and Natural Sciences, Moral and Political Sciences and Medicine; the universities of Madrid, Barcelona, Granada, Oviedo, Salamanca, Santiago, Seville, Valencia, Valladolid and Zaragoza; and the economic societies of Friends of the Country from Madrid, Barcelona, León, Seville and Valencia. An additional 180 seats comprised senators in their own right—the Monarch's offspring and the heir apparent once coming of age; Grandees of Spain of the first class; Captain Generals of the Army and the Navy Admiral; the Patriarch of the Indies and archbishops; and the presidents of the Council of State, the Supreme Court, the Court of Auditors, the Supreme War Council and the Supreme Council of the Navy, after two years of service—as well as senators for life (who were appointed by the Monarch).[2][18][19]

Election date[edit]

The term of each chamber of the Cortes—the Congress and one-half of the elective part of the Senate—expired five years from the date of their previous election, unless they were dissolved earlier. The previous Congress and Senate elections were held on 24 February and 10 March 1918, which meant that the legislature's terms would have expired on 24 February and 10 March 1923, respectively. The monarch had the prerogative to dissolve both chambers at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election.[2][7][18] There was no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate, nor for the elective part of the Senate to be renewed in its entirety except in the case that a full dissolution was agreed by the monarch. Still, there was only one case of a separate election (for the Senate in 1877) and no half-Senate elections taking place under the 1876 Constitution.

The Cortes were officially dissolved on 2 May 1919, with the election decree—issued on 10 May—setting the election dates for 1 June (for the Congress) and 15 June 1919 (for the Senate) and scheduling for both chambers to reconvene on 24 June.[20][21][22]


The Spanish Constitution of 1876 enshrined Spain as a constitutional monarchy, awarding the monarch power to name senators and to revoke laws, as well as the title of commander-in-chief of the army. The monarch would also play a key role in the system of el turno pacífico (English: the Peaceful Turn) by appointing and dismissing governments and allowing the opposition to take power. Under this system, the major political parties of the time, the conservatives and the liberals—characterized as elite parties with loose structures and dominated by internal factions led by powerful individuals—alternated in power by means of election rigging, which they achieved through the encasillado, using the links between the Ministry of Governance, the provincial civil governors and the local bosses (caciques) to ensure victory and exclude minor parties from the power sharing.[23][24]


Congress of Deputies[edit]

Summary of the 1 June 1919 Congress of Deputies election results
Parties and alliances Popular vote Seats
Votes % A.29 Cont. Total
Maurist PartyCiervist Conservatives (PM–CC) 16 89 105
Liberal Conservative Party (PLC) 29 66 95
Liberal Democratic Party (Prietist) (PLD) 13 38 51
Liberal Party (Romanonist) (PL) 10 31 41
Liberal Left (Albist) (IL) 4 27 31
Republican–Socialist Conjunction (CRS) 2 13 15
Regionalist League (LR) 1 13 14
Traditionalist Communion (Jaimist) (CT) 1 7 8
Reformist Party (PRef) 2 5 7
Catalan Republican Party (PRC) 1 4 5
Basque Nationalist Communion (CNV) 0 5 5
Agrarian Liberal Party (Gassetist) (PLA) 1 3 4
Radical Republican Party (PRR) 1 3 4
Zamorist Liberals (LZ) 0 4 4
Autonomist Monarchist Federation (FMA) 0 2 2
Integrist Party (PI) 0 1 1
Nationalist Democratic Federation (FDN) 0 1 1
Aragonese Union (UA) 0 1 1
Independents (INDEP) 2 13 15
Total 83 326 409
Votes cast / turnout 2,439,463 64.21
Registered voters 3,799,428


Summary of the 15 June 1919 Senate of Spain election results
Parties and alliances Seats
Liberal Conservative Party (PLC) 54
Maurist PartyCiervist Conservatives (PM–CC) 38
Liberal Democratic Party (Prietist) (PLD) 26
Liberal Party (Romanonist) (PL) 22
Liberal Left (Albist) (IL) 10
Regionalist League (LR) 7
Traditionalist Communion (Jaimist) (CT) 4
Basque Nationalist Communion (CNV) 2
Agrarian Liberal Party (Gassetist) (PLA) 2
Integrist Party (PI) 2
Zamorist Liberals (LZ) 1
Independents (INDEP) 3
Archbishops (ARCH) 9
Total elective seats 180

Distribution by group[edit]

Summary of political group distribution in the 18th Restoration Cortes (1919–1920)
Group Parties and alliances C S Total
PLC Liberal Conservative Party (PLC) 92 54 149
National Monarchist Union (UMN) 3 0
PMCC Maurist Party (PM) 63 26 143
Ciervist Conservatives (CC) 33 10
Traditionalist Catholic Party (PCT) 4 1
National Monarchist Union (UMN) 4 1
Monarchist Coalition (MON) 1 0
PLD Liberal Democratic Party (Prietist) (PLD) 50 26 77
National Monarchist Union (UMN) 1 0
PL Liberal Party (Romanonist) (PL) 41 22 63
IL Liberal Left (Albist) (IL) 29 10 41
Monarchist Coalition (MON) 1 0
Monarchist Action League (LAM) 1 0
LR Regionalist League (LR) 14 7 21
CRS Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 6 0 15
Republican Federation (FRep) 6 0
Independent Republicans (R.IND) 2 0
Autonomist Republican Union Party (PURA) 1 0
CT Traditionalist Communion (Jaimist) (CT) 8 4 12
PRef Reformist Party (PRef) 7 0 7
CNV Basque Nationalist Communion (CNV) 5 2 7
PLA Agrarian Liberal Party (Gassetist) (PLA) 4 2 6
PRC Catalan Republican Party (PRC) 5 0 5
LZ Zamorist Liberals (LZ) 4 1 5
PRR Radical Republican Party (PRR) 4 0 4
PI Integrist Party (PI) 1 2 3
FMA Autonomist Monarchist Federation (FMA) 2 0 2
FDN Nationalist Democratic Federation (FDN) 1 0 1
UA Aragonese Union (UA) 1 0 1
INDEP Independents (INDEP) 3 1 18
Independent Liberals (L.IND) 3 1
National Monarchist Union (UMN) 3 0
Independent Agrarians (AGR) 2 1
Independent Conservatives (C.IND) 1 0
Basque Dynastics (Urquijist) (DV) 1 0
Nationalist Republicans (R.NAC) 1 0
Independent Regionalists (REG) 1 0
ARCH Archbishops (ARCH) 0 9 9
Total 409 180 589

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Candidates elected automatically under Article 29 of the Electoral Law were proclaimed on 25 May 1919.[1]
  2. ^ Results for PM (27 deputies and 9 senators) and CC (24 deputies and 6 senators) in the 1918 election.


  1. ^ "Mayo de 1919. Día 25. Las elecciones. Diputados proclamados por el artículo 29". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Año Político. 1 January 1919. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d Constitución de la Monarquía Española (PDF) (Constitution) (in Spanish). 30 June 1876. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  3. ^ "El Senado en la historia constitucional española". Senate of Spain (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  4. ^ García Muñoz 2002, pp. 106–107.
  5. ^ Carreras de Odriozola & Tafunell Sambola 2005, p. 1077.
  6. ^ Ley electoral de los Diputados a Cortes (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 28 December 1878. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  7. ^ a b c Ley reformando la Electoral vigente (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 8 August 1907. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  8. ^ Ley mandando que los distritos para las elecciones de Diputados á Córtes sean los que se expresan en la división adjunta (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 1 January 1871. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  9. ^ Ley dividiendo la provincia de Guipúzcoa en distritos para la elección de Diputados a Cortes (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 23 June 1885. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  10. ^ Ley dividiendo el distrito electoral de Tarrasa en dos, que se denominarán de Tarrasa y de Sabadell (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 18 January 1887. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  11. ^ Ley fijando la división de la provincia de Alava en distritos electorales para Diputados á Cortes (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 10 July 1888. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  12. ^ Leyes aprobando la división electoral de las provincias de León y Vizcaya (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 2 August 1895. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  13. ^ Leyes aprobando la división electoral en las provincias de Sevilla y de Barcelona (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 5 July 1898. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  14. ^ Ley mandando que en lo sucesivo sean cuatro los Diputados á Cortes que elegirá la circunscripción electoral de Cartagena (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 7 August 1899. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  15. ^ Ley estableciendo una circunscripción para elegir tres Diputados á cortes, que la constituirán los cuatro partidos judiciales de Ayamonte, Hueva, Moguer y la Palma, con todas las poblaciones que de ellos forman parte (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 24 March 1902. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  16. ^ Ley disponiendo que el territorio de la Nación española que constituye el Archipiélago canario, cuya capitalidad reside en Santa Cruz de Tenerife, conserve su unidad, ateniéndose los servicios públicos en el modo y forma que se determina en esta ley (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 11 July 1912. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  17. ^ Real decreto disponiendo que la isla de La Palma (Canarias) se divida, a los efectos de las elecciones para Diputados a Cortes, en dos distritos, que se denominarán de Santa Cruz de la Palma y de Los Llanos (PDF) (Royal Decree) (in Spanish). 20 March 1916. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  18. ^ a b Ley electoral de Senadores (PDF) (Law) (in Spanish). 8 February 1877. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  19. ^ "Real decreto disponiendo el número de Senadores que han de elegir las provincias que se citan" (PDF). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish) (76). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado: 1021. 16 March 1899.
  20. ^ "Real decreto declarando disueltas el Congreso de los Diputados y la parte electiva, del Senado, y que las elecciones de Diputados y Senadores se celebrarán dentro del plazo legal, señalándose oportunamente la fecha" (PDF). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish) (123). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado: 422. 3 May 1919.
  21. ^ "Real decreto disponiendo que las Cortes se reunan en Madrid el día 24 de Junio próximo; que las elecciones de Diputados a Cortes se verifiquen el día primero y las de Senadores el día 15 del referido mes" (PDF). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish) (132). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado: 549. 12 May 1919.
  22. ^ "Buscador histórico (1810 - 1977)". Congress of Deputies (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  23. ^ Martorell Linares 1997, pp. 139–143.
  24. ^ Martínez Relanzón 2017, pp. 147–148.
  25. ^ "Elecciones de Diputados a Cortes verificadas el 1.° de junio de 1919". National Statistics Institute (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  26. ^ "Elecciones para diputados a Cortes. En Madrid". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). La Correspondencia de España. 2 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  27. ^ "Elecciones generales". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). La Época. 2 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  28. ^ "La jornada electoral en toda España". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Sol. 2 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  29. ^ "Elecciones generales. Resultado de la lucha". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Liberal. 3 June 1919. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  30. ^ "Datos particulares. En provincias". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). La Acción. 3 June 1919. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  31. ^ "Después de la jornada". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Heraldo de Madrid. 3 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  32. ^ "Junio de 1919. Día 1. El futuro Congreso". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Año Político. 1 January 1920. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  33. ^ "Datos oficiales". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Correo Español. 16 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  34. ^ "Las elecciones de senadores". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Fígaro. 16 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  35. ^ "Veintiocho provincias votan contra el Gobierno". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Imparcial. 16 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  36. ^ "El segundo fracaso electoral del Gobierno". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Liberal. 16 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  37. ^ "El Gobierno tendrá en la Alta Cámara una mayoría de 211 senadores". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Siglo Futuro. 16 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  38. ^ "Las elecciones de senadores en España". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Sol. 16 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  39. ^ "Elecciones de senadores. El resultado según datos oficiales". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). La Publicidad. 18 June 1919. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  40. ^ "Junio de 1919. Día 15. Elección de Senadores". National Library of Spain (in Spanish). El Año Político. 1 January 1920. Retrieved 4 August 2023.