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2014 European Parliament election in Spain

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2014 European Parliament election in Spain

← 2009 25 May 2014 2019 →

All 54 Spanish seats in the European Parliament
Opinion polls
Registered36,514,084 2.9%
Turnout15,998,141 (43.8%)
1.1 pp
  First party Second party Third party
Leader Miguel Arias Cañete Elena Valenciano Willy Meyer
Alliance EPP S&D GUE/NGL
Leader since 9 April 2014 10 February 2014 8 May 2004
Leader's seat Spain Spain Spain
Last election 24 seats, 42.1% 23 seats, 38.8% 2 seats, 3.7%
Seats won 16 14 6
Seat change 8 9 4
Popular vote 4,098,339 3,614,232 1,575,308
Percentage 26.1% 23.0% 10.0%
Swing 16.0 pp 15.8 pp 6.3 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Leader Pablo Iglesias Francisco Sosa Wagner Ramon Tremosa
Party Podemos UPyD CEU
Leader since 3 April 2014 3 September 2008 24 January 2009
Leader's seat Spain Spain Spain
Last election Did not contest 1 seat, 2.9% 3 seats, 4.8%[a]
Seats won 5 4 3
Seat change 5 3 0
Popular vote 1,253,837 1,022,232 851,971
Percentage 8.0% 6.5% 5.4%
Swing New party 3.6 pp 0.6 pp

The 2014 European Parliament election in Spain was held on Sunday, 25 May 2014, as part of the EU-wide election to elect the 8th European Parliament. All 54 seats allocated to Spain as per the Treaty of Lisbon were up for election.

The People's Party (PP) emerged as the largest party overall, albeit with its worst nationwide election result in 25 years with a mere 26.1% of the share and 16 seats, losing 2.6 million votes and 8 seats from its 2009 result. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) lost 9 seats and 2.5 million votes, obtaining just 23% of the total party vote and 14 seats. This would represent the party's worst election result in recent history until the 2015 general election, in which it scored a new low. Up to 8 additional political forces obtained representation. Pablo Iglesias' newly formed Podemos party (Spanish for "We can") turned into the election night surprise by winning 5 seats and 1,253,837 votes (7.98% of the share), an unprecedented result for a party only 4 months old and contesting an election for the first time. Podemos's surge and the extent of PP and PSOE collapse were not foreseen by opinion polls during the campaign, which had predicted higher support for the two dominant parties and a weaker performance of Podemos.

United Left's Plural Left coalition and Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) obtained some of their best historical results, with 10.0% and 6.5% of the vote and 6 and 4 seats, respectively. However, this was far from the major election breakthrough that polls had predicted throughout 2013 and in early 2014. From this point onwards both parties would lose support in opinion polls and in successive regional and local elections. The Citizens (C's) party of Albert Rivera, then marginalised as a Catalonia-only party and after several failed attempts to jump into national politics, managed to obtain 3.16% of the share and 2 seats. Just as Podemos, it would grow in support in the run up to the next general election and become a major political actor by 2015.

Electoral system[edit]

54 members of the European Parliament were allocated to Spain as per the Treaty of Lisbon. Voting was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals and resident non-national European citizens over 18 years of age and in full enjoyment of their political rights.[1][2] Amendments to the electoral law in 2011 required for Spaniards abroad to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[3]

All seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with no electoral threshold being applied in order to be entitled to enter seat distribution. Seats were allocated to a single multi-member constituency comprising the entire national territory.[1] The use of the D'Hondt method might result in an effective threshold depending on the district magnitude.[4]

Outgoing delegation[edit]

Outgoing delegation in April 2014[5]
Groups Parties MEPs
Seats Total
European People's Party PP 24 25
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats PSOE 23 23
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe CDC 1 2
Greens–European Free Alliance ICV 1 2
Aralar 1
European United Left–Nordic Green Left IU 1 1
Non-Inscrits UPyD 1 1

Parties and candidates[edit]

The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election call. In order to be entitled to run, parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors needed to secure the signature of at least 15,000 registered electors; this requirement could be lifted and replaced through the signature of at least 50 elected officials—deputies, senators, MEPs or members from the legislative assemblies of autonomous communities or from local city councils. Electors and elected officials were disallowed from signing for more than one list of candidates.[1]

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Candidacy Parties and
Leading candidate Ideology Previous result Ref.
Votes (%) Seats
Miguel Arias Cañete Conservatism
Christian democracy
42.12% 24 [6]
PSOE Elena Valenciano Social democracy 38.78% 23 [7]
CEU Ramon Tremosa Peripheral nationalism 4.82%[a] 3 [8]
Willy Meyer Socialism
3.71% 2 [9]
UPyD Francisco Sosa Wagner Social liberalism
Radical centrism
2.85% 1 [10]
LPD Josu Juaristi Left-wing nationalism
2.14%[b] 0 [11]
EPDD Josep Maria Terricabras Catalan independence
Social democracy
1.41%[c] 1 [12]
Jordi Sebastià Green politics
0.27%[d] 0 [13]
C's Javier Nart Social liberalism 0.14%[e] 0
Alejo Vidal-Quadras Social conservatism
Did not contest [14]
Pablo Iglesias Left-wing populism
Democratic socialism
Did not contest [16]


Party slogans[edit]

Party or alliance Original slogan English translation Ref.
PP « Lo que está en juego es el futuro » "What is at stake is the future" [19]
PSOE « Tú mueves Europa » "You move Europe" [19]
CEU CiU–RI.cat: « Guanyem-nos Europa »
EAJ/PNV: « Euskadi gehiago, Europa berrian » / « Más Euskadi en otra Europa »
CCa–PNC: « Exigente por Canarias »
CxG: « A Europa que queremos »
CiU–RI.cat: "Let us win Europe for us"
EAJ/PNV: "More Basque Country in another Europe"
CCa–PNC: "Being demanding for the Canaries"
CxG: "The Europe we want"
IP « El poder de la gente » "The power of people" [19]
UPyD « La unión hace la fuerza » "In unity lies strength" [19]
LPD EH Bildu: « Herriek erabaki » / « Los pueblos deciden »
BNG: « Rebélate polos teus dereitos »
EH Bildu: "The peoples decide"
BNG: "Rebel for your rights!"
EPDD « Comencem el nou país. Ara a Europa » "Let us begin the new country. Now in Europe" [12]
PE « La Europa de las personas »
« Por fin, la Primavera »
"The Europe of people"
"At last, the Spring"
C's « La fuerza de la unión » "Strength lies in unity" [25]
Vox « La solución es cambiar » "The solution is to change" [19]
Podemos « ¿Cuándo fue la última vez que votaste con ilusión? » "When was the last time you voted with hope?" [26]


The electoral campaign started at 12:00 am on 9 May. However, a traffic accident in Badajoz resulting in the deaths of 5 people (1 adult and 4 children) and 12 injured forced the suspension of the start of the campaign in Extremadura.[27]

On Monday 12 May, Isabel Carrasco, president of the provincial government of Leon and member of the PP, was shot dead in the street.[28] Policial investigation concluded that the crime's motive were of vengeance, since the two women arrested for committing the crime, wife and daughter of the Chief Inspector of the Police of the nearby town of Astorga, were affiliated to the PP;[29][30] one of them having been previously fired from the Provincial Deputation presided by Carrasco.[31]

This event forced another suspension of the campaign for 24 hours by most major political parties, except for some minoritary parties who chose not to stop their campaigns.[32][33]

Election debates[edit]

2014 European Parliament election debates in Spain
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present[f]    S  Surrogate[g]    NI  Not invited   A  Absent invitee 
15 May RTVE María Casado P
NI NI NI NI 12.7%
19 May RTVE María Casado S
G. Pons
S. Wagner

Opinion polls[edit]

The tables below list opinion polling results in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages. The "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a poll.

Voting intention estimates[edit]

The table below lists weighted voting intention estimates. Refusals are generally excluded from the party vote percentages, while question wording and the treatment of "don't know" responses and those not intending to vote may vary between polling organisations. When available, seat projections determined by the polling organisations are displayed below (or in place of) the percentages in a smaller font.

Color key:

  Poll conducted after legal ban on opinion polls   Exit poll

Voting preferences[edit]

The table below lists raw, unweighted voting preferences.

Victory preferences[edit]

The table below lists opinion polling on the victory preferences for each party in the event of a European Parliament election taking place.

Victory likelihood[edit]

The table below lists opinion polling on the perceived likelihood of victory for each party in the event of a European Parliament election taking place.



Summary of the 25 May 2014 European Parliament election results in Spain
Parties and alliances Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
People's Party (PP) 4,098,339 26.09 –16.03 16 –8
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 3,614,232 23.01 –15.77 14 –9
Plural Left (IP)1 1,575,308 10.03 +6.32 6 +4
We Can (Podemos) 1,253,837 7.98 New 5 +5
Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) 1,022,232 6.51 +3.66 4 +3
Coalition for Europe (CEU)2 851,971 5.42 +0.60 3 ±0
The Left for the Right to Decide (EPDD)3 630,072 4.01 +2.60 2 +1
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's)4 497,146 3.16 +3.02 2 +2
The Peoples Decide (LPD)5 326,464 2.08 –0.06 1 +1
European Spring (PE)6 302,266 1.92 +1.56 1 +1
Vox (Vox) 246,833 1.57 New 0 ±0
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA) 177,499 1.13 +0.87 0 ±0
Blank Seats (EB) 115,682 0.74 New 0 ±0
Citizens' Democratic Renewal Movement (RED) 105,666 0.67 New 0 ±0
X Party, Party of the Future (Partido X) 100,561 0.64 New 0 ±0
Andalusian Party (PA)7 49,523 0.32 +0.15 0 ±0
Pirate Confederation–European Pirates (Piratas) 38,690 0.25 New 0 ±0
Asturias Forum (FAC) 32,962 0.21 New 0 ±0
Electors' Group for the Disabled and Rare Diseases (DER) 32,833 0.21 New 0 ±0
Zero Cuts (Recortes Cero) 30,827 0.20 New 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 29,324 0.19 +0.09 0 ±0
Feminist Initiative (IFem) 23,140 0.15 +0.09 0 ±0
Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS) 21,687 0.14 +0.08 0 ±0
United Free Citizens (CILUS) 18,287 0.12 New 0 ±0
Social Impulse (Impulso Social)8 17,879 0.11 –0.08 0 ±0
Spain on the Move (LEM) 17,035 0.11 New 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 14,896 0.09 +0.05 0 ±0
National Democracy (DN) 13,079 0.08 +0.02 0 ±0
Europe Project (ACNV–BAR–PRAO–REPO–UNIO) 11,502 0.07 New 0 ±0
Land Party (PT) 9,940 0.06 New 0 ±0
Individual Freedom Party (P–LIB) 9,670 0.06 New 0 ±0
Republican Social Movement (MSR) 8,909 0.06 +0.02 0 ±0
United Extremadura (EU) 8,821 0.06 +0.03 0 ±0
Republican Alternative (ALTER) 8,593 0.05 New 0 ±0
For the Republic, for the Rupture with the European Union (RRUE)9 8,309 0.05 –0.03 0 ±0
Internationalist Solidarity and Self-Management (SAIn) 6,929 0.04 ±0.00 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL) 6,759 0.04 +0.01 0 ±0
Extremadurans for Europe (IPEx–PREx–CREx) 5,967 0.04 New 0 ±0
Red Current Movement (MCR) 4,980 0.03 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 361,567 2.30 +0.91
Total 15,710,216 54 ±0
Valid votes 15,710,216 98.20 –1.18
Invalid votes 287,925 1.80 +1.18
Votes cast / turnout 15,998,141 43.81 –1.09
Abstentions 20,515,943 56.19 +1.09
Registered voters 36,514,084
Popular vote
Blank ballots

Distribution by European group[edit]

Summary of political group distribution in the 8th European Parliament (2014–2019)[5]
Groups Parties Seats Total %
European People's Party (EPP) 16
17 31.48
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) 14 14 25.93
European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) 5
11 20.37
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) 4
8 14.81
Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) 1
4 7.41
Total 54 54 100.00

Elected legislators[edit]

The following table lists the elected legislators:[42]


The election resulted in a massive loss of support for the two main political parties of Spain, which together fell from a combined total of 80.9% in the previous European election to a record-low 49.1% of the vote (a net total of −31.8 pp, about −16.0 each one).[43] Podemos, a party founded four months previously running on an anti-austerity platform, won an unprecedented 8.0% of the vote and 5 out of 54 seats to the European Parliament; the best result ever scored in Spain by a newly created party in its first electoral test.[44]

The People's Party (PP) came out on top in most autonomous communities except in Andalusia, Asturias and Extremadura, where the PSOE won; the Basque Country, where the PNV prevailed; and Catalonia, where ERC scored first place for the first time in 80 years. In these last two communities the PP polled in fourth and fifth places, respectively. Significant were, however, their results in Madrid, Valencian Community and Murcia; in the first two it polled below the 30% mark for the first time in 25 years, while in the latter it experienced a spectacular drop in support, falling from the 60% mark it had maintained since the 2000 general election to below 40% of the vote. Also, except for the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla, it didn't surpass the 40% mark in any region, not even its strongholds of Galicia (where it polled a mere 35%), Castile and León or Castile-La Mancha (38% in both of them).

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), except for those communities where it won, experienced a significant drop in support. It suffered most notably in Catalonia and Basque Country (where it finished in 3rd place). In Catalonia in particular, the PSOE's sister party, the Socialists' Party of Catalonia, had previously won all general and European elections held in the region–except for those of 1994 and 2011, where it polled second just behind Convergence and Union–. Until this election, the worst result of the party in this region in such elections had been the 2011 result of 26.7%; in this election it fell to 14.3%.

Other parties benefiting from the collapse in support for the PP and PSOE parties were United Left-led Plural Left (IP) coalition, which with a 10.0% obtained its best results nationally since 1996, and Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD), whose 6.5% would remain the highest the party would win in a nationwide election before their decline throughout 2015. The Citizens party (C's) entered the European Parliament with 2 seats and 3.2% of the vote.[45]


The election backlash had immediate consequences on the Socialist party (PSOE), which scored its worst result ever in an election held at a nationwide scale: a bare 23.0% of the vote, compared to the already disappointing results the party had obtained in the general election of 2011, with 28.8%. Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, which had won the party's leadership on a 2012 party federal congress, announced his intention to resign from his post after his party holds an extraordinary Federal Congress on 19–20 July to elect a new Secretary-General, ahead of the scheduled November Socialist primaries to elect the party's candidate for the 2015 election.[46] Rubalcaba also announced his intention not to run in these primaries.[47] Several regional party leaders followed suit and announced their intention to hold regional extraordinary party congresses as well.[48]

On the other hand, People's Party (PP) leaders refused to publicly acknowledge the negative results of the party in the election, despite losing 40% of its 2009 vote and scoring the worst result the party has obtained in a national election since 1989, instead opting to highlight the fact that they had won the election.[49] Despite this, the party had to cancel the victory celebration that was to be held in their national headquarters in Madrid due to the poor affluence of party supporters which went to the place, a result of election results much worse than expected.[50][51] Concerns arose among party regional leaders on the prospects of such electoral results being displayed at the local and regional level in the May 2015 elections, something which could potentially force the PP out from the government of party strongholds' such as Madrid and Valencia.[52]

On 26 May El País ran the headline "Harsh punishment to PP and PSOE",[53] whilst El Mundo declared that "Bipartisanship crumbles".[54] International media focused instead on the rise of Podemos party, with the BBC headlining that "Spain's 'we can' party proves it can" or "Spain's Podemos party challenges system",[55][56] while others stated how the final election results "stunned analysts and pollsters".[57][58]

Abdication of King Juan Carlos I[edit]

One week after the election, Spanish King Juan Carlos I announced his intention to abdicate in favour of his son, Felipe.[59] Allegedly, the election results had no influence in the King's abdication. Rather, the elderly monarch had taken the decision the day of his 76th birthday in January and had spoken about it with Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy on 31 March and with opposition leader Rubalcaba three days later, but it was not until after the election that he announced it in order not to affect the electoral process.[60][61] However, abdication was not regulated under the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and thus required the approval of an Organic Law on the matter.[62][63] PP, PSOE, UPyD, CC, FAC and UPN all pledged their support for the law's approval.[64] Attention then turned to the PSOE leader Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba as rumours spread about him not resigning right away the day after the election to keep controlling the party so as to ensure the affirmative vote of its parliamentary group on the law.[65] This was received with criticism from several of the party's regional federations but also from its members and the Socialist Youth, openly republican, who demanded the party ask for a referendum on the monarchy issue.[66][67]

Furthermore, there was speculation on the opportunity of the King abdicating at the time he did. In fact, due to the crisis of the bipartisanship self-evidenced by the European election results, the idea of the King announcing his decision before the 2015 general election, when the election results could translate into PP and PSOE losing a host of seats in the Congress of Deputies, making the building of large majorities more difficult, became extended among public opinion.[68] The fact that the future of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party's position on the monarchy, as well as the future of the party itself, looked uncertain after the debacle in the European election and Rubalcaba's resignation seemed to have also played a key part in precipitating the King's decision.[69] PM Rajoy said, on the day the King announced he would abdicate, that "This is the best time [for it to happen], within a short time the Prince shall be proclaimed King".[70]


  1. ^ a b Results for CEU in the 2009 election, not including Andalusia and the Valencian Community.
  2. ^ Results for II–SP (1.12%), EdP–V in the Basque Country, Galicia and Navarre (1.00%) and AA (0.01%) in the 2009 election.
  3. ^ Results for EdP–V in the 2009 election, not including the Basque Country, Galicia and Navarre.
  4. ^ Results for PUM+J (0.15%), CEU in the Valencian Community (0.12%) and EdP–V in Aragon (0.08%) in the 2009 election.
  5. ^ Results for Libertas in the 2009 election.
  6. ^ Denotes a main invitee attending the event.
  7. ^ Denotes a main invitee not attending the event, sending a surrogate in their place.


Opinion poll sources
  1. ^ "El PP gana las elecciones europeas por estrecho margen, según los sondeos a pie de urna". La Gaceta (in Spanish). 25 May 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Sondeos a pie de urna". Twitter (in Spanish). 25 May 2014.
  3. ^ "Big bang electoral". ABC Sevilla (in Spanish). 1 June 2014.
  4. ^ "El PP saca 8 puntos al PSOE y Vox alcanza un escaño". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 18 May 2014.
  5. ^ "El PP aventaja al PSOE en 2,8 puntos en la recta final". La Razón (in Spanish). 19 May 2014.
  6. ^ "Encuesta mayo 2014" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 19 May 2014.
  7. ^ "Se confirma la previsión de abstención récord y el desgaste de PP y PSOE". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 19 May 2014.
  8. ^ "Barómetro Parlamento Europeo. Mes de mayo de 2014–Segunda oleada" (PDF). Celeste-Tel (in Spanish). 19 May 2014.
  9. ^ "El PP triunfaría en las elecciones europeas con casi siete puntos de ventaja sobre el PSOE". laSexta (in Spanish). 19 May 2014.
  10. ^ "La recuperación económica impulsa el voto del PP y hunde más al PSOE". ABC (in Spanish). 18 May 2014.
  11. ^ "Encuesta elecciones europeas de GAD3 para ABC- 16 de mayo". GAD3 (in Spanish). 16 May 2014.
  12. ^ "El auge de los minoritarios lastra al PSOE y a su líder". El Mundo (in Spanish). 19 May 2014.
  13. ^ "Abstención récord y resultado ajustado". El País (in Spanish). 17 May 2014.
  14. ^ "GESOCLAB" (in Spanish). 11 May 2014. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  15. ^ "El PP ganaría las europeas al PSOE con casi tres puntos de ventaja". La Razón (in Spanish). 11 May 2014.
  16. ^ "PP y PSOE perderán uno de cada tres votos en las europeas". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 13 May 2014.
  17. ^ "Barómetro Parlamento Europeo. Mes de mayo de 2014" (PDF). Celeste-Tel (in Spanish). 13 May 2014.
  18. ^ a b c "El PP cae 9 puntos pero arranca la campaña con ventaja sobre el PSOE". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 11 May 2014.
  19. ^ "El PP se dispara con 6,5 puntos sobre el PSOE". El Mundo (in Spanish). 11 May 2014.
  20. ^ "El PP mantiene la tendencia al alza y aventaja ya al PSOE en 4,6 puntos". El Mundo (in Spanish). 3 May 2014.
  21. ^ "Sin Complejos completo 03/05/2014". esRadio (in Spanish). 3 May 2014.
  22. ^ "SPAIN (EP 2014), April 2014. Demoscopia y Servicios". Electograph (in Spanish). 3 May 2014.
  23. ^ "Un sondeo acentúa la caída de los dos grandes partidos españoles". Público (in Spanish). 13 May 2014.
  24. ^ "Intención de voto, estimación de resultados e interés por la campaña". Sondea Investigación Social (in Spanish). 13 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  25. ^ a b "Sondeo preelectoral sobre las elecciones europeas". IU (in Spanish). 28 April 2014.
  26. ^ a b c "Preelectoral Elecciones al Parlamento Europeo 2014 (Estudio nº 3022. Abril 2014)" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). 8 May 2014.
  27. ^ "El PP recupera confianza y supera por tres escaños a un PSOE abatido". ABC (in Spanish). 27 April 2014.
  28. ^ "Encuesta de GAD3 para ABC: Elecciones Europeas 25 de mayo". GAD3 (in Spanish). 26 April 2014.
  29. ^ "Los sondeos dan un empate entre el PP y el PSOE con una abstención altísima". El País (in Spanish). 27 April 2014.
  30. ^ a b "Elecciones europeas. Barómetro preelectoral: abril 2014". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 28 April 2014.
  31. ^ "El PP ajusta al alza su ventaja". El Mundo (in Spanish). 27 April 2014.
  32. ^ "PP y PSOE perderían más de 17 puntos en las europeas". El Mundo (in Spanish). 20 April 2014.
  33. ^ "El voto en las europeas está fragmentado y de momento no se perfila ganador claro". laSexta (in Spanish). 12 April 2014.
  34. ^ "Encuesta abril 2014" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 2 April 2014.
  35. ^ a b "Al 85% de los españoles no les preocupa no conocer al candidato popular para las europeas". laSexta (in Spanish). 22 March 2014.
  36. ^ "El PSOE arranca la movilización de sus electores para el 25-M". El País (in Spanish). 22 March 2014.
  37. ^ a b c "Elecciones europeas. Barómetro preelectoral: marzo 2014". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 24 March 2014.
  38. ^ "Valenciano mantiene la mínima ventaja del PSOE frente al PP en las europeas". El País (in Spanish). 22 February 2014.
  39. ^ a b "Elecciones europeas. Barómetro preelectoral: febrero 2014". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 24 February 2014.
  40. ^ "ENCUESTA-TRACK ELECTORAL Elecciones Europeas en España (I)". Sondeos R.A. España (in Spanish). 17 February 2014. Archived from the original on 16 February 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  41. ^ "El PP ganaría hoy las elecciones europeas con 20 escaños frente a 18 del PSOE". ABC Sevilla (in Spanish). 17 February 2014.
  42. ^ "El PSOE ganaría las europeas: 19 escaños frente a 17 del PP, 'mordido' por VOX y C'S". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 14 February 2014.
  43. ^ "Tertulia de Luis del Pino: Las estrategias judiciales de la Infanta". esRadio (in Spanish). 9 February 2014.
  44. ^ "El PP ganaría las elecciones europeas". La Razón (in Spanish). 3 February 2014.
  45. ^ "Encuesta enero 2014" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 3 February 2014.
  46. ^ "El PP sigue en cabeza para las europeas aunque pierde apoyos". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 3 February 2014.
  47. ^ "El PSOE aventaja al PP en las europeas". El País (in Spanish). 25 January 2014.
  48. ^ a b "Elecciones al Parlamento Europeo 2014: estimación de voto". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 29 January 2014.
  49. ^ "El PP ganaría las elecciones europeas según el barómetro de laSexta". laSexta (in Spanish). 29 December 2013.
  50. ^ "Unas europeas poco atractivas". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 6 December 2013.
  51. ^ "PP y PSOE empatarían en las elecciones a la Eurocámara de mayo". El País (in Spanish). 17 November 2013.
  52. ^ a b "El clima político de cara a las Europeas de 2014: un reflejo del nacional". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 19 November 2013.
  53. ^ "El PP aventaja en 4,1 puntos al PSOE a seis meses de las elecciones europeas". La Razón (in Spanish). 4 November 2013.
  54. ^ "Las europeas solo motivan a uno de cada cinco españoles". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 5 July 2013.
  55. ^ "La fidelidad de voto del PP se derrumba ante las elecciones al Parlamento Europeo". ZoomNews (in Spanish). 8 July 2013. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  56. ^ a b "Índices de Opinión Pública. Parlamento Europeo". Simple Lógica (in Spanish). 11 June 2013. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
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