14th United States Congress

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14th United States Congress
13th ←
→ 15th
The Old Brick Capitol, the temporary Capitol while the U.S. Capitol was being renovated after the Burning of Washington. (pictured here around 1861 in use as a Civil War prison)

March 4, 1815 – March 4, 1817
Members38 senators
183 representatives
4 non-voting delegates
Senate majorityDemocratic-Republican
Senate PresidentVacant[a]
House majorityDemocratic-Republican
House SpeakerHenry Clay (DR)
1st: December 4, 1815 – April 30, 1816
2nd: December 2, 1816 – March 3, 1817

The 14th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in the Old Brick Capitol in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1815, to March 4, 1817, during the seventh and eighth years of James Madison's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1810 United States census. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.

Major events[edit]

Speaker of the House
Henry Clay

Major legislation[edit]

Proposed, but not enacted[edit]


States admitted and territories organized[edit]

Party summary[edit]

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.


During this congress, two Senate seats were added for the new state of Indiana.

(shading shows control)
Total Vacant

End of previous congress 25 10 35 1
Begin 22 11 33 3
End 25 13 380
Final voting share 65.8% 34.2%
Beginning of next congress 25 13 38 0

House of Representatives[edit]

During this congress, one House seat was added for the new state of Indiana.

(shading shows control)
Total Vacant

End of previous congress 115 67 182 0
Begin 114 63 177 5
End 119 1821
Final voting share 65.4% 34.6%
Beginning of next congress 142 38 180 3



House of Representatives[edit]


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class and representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below


Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1820; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1816; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1818.

House of Representatives[edit]

Changes in membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


Senate changes
Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[b]
Vacant For unknown reasons, a Senator was not elected until after the term began.
Winner elected October 10, 1815.
George W. Campbell (DR) Took seat October 10, 1815
Jesse Wharton (DR) Appointee was not elected to finish the term.
Successor elected October 10, 1815.
John Williams (DR) Seated October 10, 1815
North Carolina
Francis Locke Jr. Resigned when successor was elected, having never qualified.
Successor elected December 5, 1815 to finish term.[1]
Nathaniel Macon (DR) Seated December 13, 1815
Vacant Resignation of William B. Giles (DR) in the previous congress.
Successor elected January 3, 1816 to finish the term.
Armistead T. Mason (DR) Took seat January 3, 1816
Vacant Legislature failed to elect in time for the term.
Successor elected January 29, 1816 for the term.[2]
Robert G. Harper (F) Took seat January 29, 1816
William T. Barry (DR) Resigned May 1, 1816 after being appointed to a judicial position.
Successor appointed November 13, 1816, to continue the term and then finished the term either by special election or by the appointment.
Martin D. Hardin (F) Seated November 13, 1816
Christopher Gore (F) Resigned May 30, 1816.
Successor elected June 12, 1816, to finish the term.
Eli P. Ashmun (F) Seated June 12, 1816
South Carolina
John Taylor (DR) Resigned November 1816.
Successor elected December 4, 1816, to finish the term.
William Smith (DR) Seated December 4, 1816
William W. Bibb (DR) Resigned November 9, 1816 after being appointed Governor of Alabama Territory.
Successor elected November 13, 1816, to finish the term, having already been elected to the next term.
George Troup (DR) Seated November 13, 1816
North Carolina
James Turner (DR) Resigned November 21, 1816 due to ill health.
Successor elected December 4, 1816, to finish the term.
Montfort Stokes (DR) Seated December 4, 1816
Robert G. Harper (F) Resigned December 6, 1816.
Successor elected December 20, 1816, to finish the term.
Alexander C. Hanson (F) Seated December 20, 1816
New seats Indiana was admitted to the Union on December 11, 1816. James Noble (DR) Seated December 11, 1816
Waller Taylor (DR)

House of Representatives[edit]

House changes
District Vacated by Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[b]
New York 12 Vacant Member-elect Benjamin Pond died during previous congress Asa Adgate (DR) December 7, 1815
Pennsylvania 3 Vacant Amos Ellmaker resigned on July 3, 1815, upon State appointment as judge James M. Wallace (DR) December 4, 1815
Kentucky 2 Vacant Seat declared vacant by the governor, “caused by the acceptance of Henry Clay to sign a commercial convention as Minister Plenipotentiary to Great Britain”, but Clay was elected to fill his own vacancy Henry Clay (DR) December 4, 1815
New York 17 Vacant Credentials for incumbent William S. Smith (F) were issued by the Secretary of State of New York, but Smith did not take or claim the seat, contested by Willoughby Jr. Westel Willoughby Jr. (DR) December 13, 1815
New York 8 Vacant Credentials for John Adams (F) were issued by the Secretary of State of New York, but Adams did not take or claim the seat, contested by Root Erastus Root (DR) December 26, 1815
Maryland 5 Nicholas R. Moore (DR) Resigned sometime in 1815 before Congress convened Samuel Smith (DR) February 4, 1816
New York 6 Jonathan Fisk (DR) Resigned sometime in March, 1815, upon appointment as United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York James W. Wilkin (DR) December 4, 1815
Pennsylvania 9 David Bard (DR) Died March 12, 1815 Thomas Burnside (DR) December 11, 1815
Pennsylvania 1 Jonathan Williams (DR) Died May 16, 1815 John Sergeant (F) December 6, 1815
Virginia 15 Matthew Clay (DR) Died May 27, 1815 John Kerr (DR) December 5, 1815
Tennessee 2 John Sevier (DR) Died September 24, 1815 William G. Blount (DR) January 8, 1816
North Carolina 6 Nathaniel Macon (DR) Resigned December 13, 1815, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Weldon N. Edwards (DR) February 7, 1816
Maryland 3 Alexander C. Hanson (F) Resigned sometime in 1816 George Peter (F) October 7, 1816
Ohio 1 John McLean (DR) Resigned sometime in 1816 William Henry Harrison (DR) December 2, 1816
New York 21 Peter B. Porter (DR) Resigned January 23, 1816 Archibald S. Clarke (DR) December 2, 1816
Massachusetts 11 Elijah Brigham (F) Died February 22, 1816 Benjamin Adams (F) December 2, 1816
Pennsylvania 9 Thomas Burnside (DR) Resigned April, 1816 William P. Maclay (DR) December 3, 1816
North Carolina 8 Richard Stanford (DR) Died April 9, 1816 Samuel Dickens (DR) December 2, 1816
Maryland 5 William Pinkney (DR) Resigned April 18, 1816, upon appointment as Minister Plenipotentiary to Russia Peter Little (DR) December 2, 1816
Vermont at-large Daniel Chipman (F) Resigned May 5, 1816 Vacant until next Congress
New York 20 Enos T. Throop (DR) Resigned June 4, 1816 Daniel Avery (DR) December 3, 1816
Virginia 18 Thomas Gholson Jr. (DR) Died July 4, 1816 Thomas M. Nelson (DR) December 4, 1816
Kentucky 1 James Clark (DR) Resigned sometime in August, 1816 Thomas Fletcher (DR) December 2, 1816
Missouri Territory at-large Rufus Easton Served throughout the first session; Scott presented credentials at the beginning of the second session and was contested by Easton John Scott December 2, 1816
Illinois Territory at-large Benjamin Stephenson Term ended September 3, 1816 Nathaniel Pope December 2, 1816
Virginia 23 John Clopton (DR) Died September 11, 1816 John Tyler (DR) December 17, 1816
South Carolina 9 William Mayrant (DR) Resigned October 21, 1816 Stephen D. Miller (DR) January 2, 1817
North Carolina 5 William R. King (DR) Resigned November 4, 1816 Charles Hooks (DR) December 2, 1816
Georgia at-large Alfred Cuthbert (DR) Resigned November 9, 1816 Zadock Cook (DR) January 23, 1817
Indiana Territory at-large Jonathan Jennings (Territorial delegate) Indiana was admitted to the Union on December 11, 1816 William Hendricks (DR) December 11, 1816
Missouri Territory at-large John Scott His election was contested by his predecessor Easton. On January 13, 1817, the election was declared illegal, but the seat was declared vacant. Vacant until next Congress


Lists of committees and their party leaders.


House of Representatives[edit]

Joint committees[edit]


Legislative branch agency directors[edit]


House of Representatives[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ President pro tempore John Gaillard acted his duties as the President of the Senate.
  2. ^ a b When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.


  1. ^ "NC US Senate – Special Election". Our Campaigns. January 6, 2008. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
  2. ^ "MD US Senate". Our Campaigns. August 29, 2004. Retrieved February 27, 2015.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links[edit]