Tourism in Australia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A surfer on the Gold Coast. An iconic global image of Australian tourism focuses on its beaches, which are an integral part of the Australian identity.[1]
Driving on the Lasseter Highway near the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in the Northern Territory.
The Whitsunday Islands in Queensland.
Ski ranges on Mount Hotham, located in Victoria
Great Keppel Island beach

Tourism in Australia is an important part of the Australian economy, and comprises domestic and international visitors. Australia is the fortieth most visited country in the world according to the World Tourism Organization.[2] In the financial year 2018/19, tourism was Australia's fourth-largest export and over the previous decade was growing faster than national GDP growth.[3] At the time it represented 3.1% of Australia's GDP contributing A$60.8 billion to the national economy.[4]

In the calendar year up to December 2019, there were 8.7 million international visitors in Australia.[5] Tourism employed 666,000 people in Australia in 2018–19, 1 in 21 jobs across the workforce.[4] About 48% of people employed in tourism were full-time and 54% female.[3] Tourism also contributed 8.2% of Australia's total export earnings in 2018–19.[4]

Popular Australian destinations include the coastal cities of Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne, as well as other high-profile destinations including regional Queensland, the Gold Coast and the Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest reef. Other popular locations include Uluru, the Australian outback and the Tasmanian wilderness. The unique Australian wildlife is also another significant point of interest in the country's tourism.


Despite the global economic challenges and natural disasters in 2010–2011, Australia's tourism growth was supported by increased consumption (up 4.4% over the last few years, largely due to an increase in the number of international visitors). On the back of a strong Australian dollar, 2010–11 also saw a record 7.4 million short-term resident departures from Australia, an increase of 9.9% from 2009–10. Consumption by domestic tourists grew at less than half the pace of international tourists in 2010–11 (up 2.1% compared to 4.4%).[6]

The Australian Government released the 2020 Tourism Industry Potential on 15 November 2010, which estimated the Australian tourism industry to be worth up to $140 billion in overnight expenditure. This growth will largely be due to key emerging markets, including China, which is estimated to be the largest economic contributor to Australian tourism by 2020.[7] The number of Chinese visitors has more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 reaching a peak of 626,400 in 2012 and surpassing for the first time the number of arrivals from the United Kingdom.[8] In 2013, China was Australia's fastest growing tourist market.[9] By 2017 China surpassed New Zealand as the top source of visitors to Australia, and in 2019 Chinese visitors reached a peak of over 1.4 million and had contributed about A$12 billion to the Australian economy.[10][11][12] According to Tourism Australia Managing Director Andrew McEvoy, the Chinese are the highest spending visitors to the country.[13]


All visitors to Australia, apart from New Zealanders, require an Australian visa to enter the country. For most countries, a full visa is required. Passport holders of all European Union countries as well as all Schengen Area countries and European microstates can apply online for an eVisitor authorisation. Citizens of some OECD and some East Asian countries can apply for the similar Electronic Travel Authority authorisation.[14]


From the colonial days, the idea of travel has been more natural to Australians than to people long-established at one from their homes, was prone to continue their search for wealth or security for a while, or, having settled down, to return to the old countries to visit their kin and refresh old memories. The opening of new lands, the establishment of industries and towns, and the consequent dispersal of people over Australia created a habit of mobility and enterprise which encouraged Australians to face the hardships of early travel by coach, on horseback or by ship. Even so, the slow and uncomfortable modes of travel and the vast distances separating Australian towns tended to restrict travel to essential journeys for purposes of trade, to pursue an occupation or to settle. This changed somewhat with the advent of rail travel.

The initial emphasis in tourism for purposes of pleasure was strongest on travel to resorts near the main population centres. These included the Blue Mountains in New South Wales and the hill and coast resorts close to Melbourne and other major Victorian cities. The existing railway services radiating from those cities, together with the 'feeder' horse-drawn, and later motor, coach transport connecting with the railways, rendered the State Government railway tourist bureaux the main means for selling intrastate, and even some interstate, travel.

Travel for all purposes increased steadily after the Second World War. This period saw the establishment of the Australian National Travel Association with bureaux in the UK and USA.[15] The organisation received government funding on top of industry contributions and promoted the country 'vigorously' via a poster campaign, and from 1934–1974 via Walkabout magazine.[16] From August 1946, Walkabout also doubled as the official journal of the newly formed Australian Geographical Society (AGS), founded with a £5,000 grant from ANTA, its banner subscript reading 'Journal of the Australian Geographical Society. This role is now filled by Australian Geographic magazine. Later it became ‘Australia's Way of Life Magazine’ when supported by the Australian National Publicity Association and later the Australian Tourist Commission.

Tourism traffic continued to be mainly by rail, but also by sea, although the family motor era began in the 1930s to participate in the shorter intrastate traffic. A considerable fleet of passenger ships provided frequent and popular services linking most ports between Fremantle and Cairns. Other services linked Sydney and Melbourne with Tasmanian ports. The winter cruise of those days to Queensland ports could be regarded as the equivalent of today's drive or flight north for a winter holiday at the Gold Coast or a Barrier Reef Island, or today's shorter South Pacific cruises. The first cruises from Australia to New Zealand were organised in the summer of 1934–35, and Australians were travelling to Britain for as low as $78 in tourist class in the years immediately preceding the Second World War.

In the period following the Second World War the advent of new and improved methods of transportation, combined with rising standards of living and the energetic publicising of foreign destinations, developed international travel into a mass movement. New ocean liners shortened travelling time considerably, and travel by car and bus increased in many countries. Most of all, air travel became widely available, faster, safer, and cheaper. The beginning of the Jet Age in 1960, with larger aeroplanes carrying more than 100 passengers at speeds approximating 600 miles per hour, diminished the world by half in terms of time. Rising standards of living in the post-war period led to greater expenditure on tourism, thus making it more important to the national economy.

Australia has shared in this worldwide expansion of travel, particularly in respect of its domestic tourism. Because of the marked increase in incomes and private car ownership among large sections of the population, greater leisure time, three weeks of paid annual holidays (introduced first in New South Wales in 1958) and the introduction of long-service leave, thousands of Australians now travel by road into almost every part of the country. This has led to investment in the development of new and improved facilities, especially accommodation, of new resorts at dispersed points around Australia, and modifications in organisation and methods of tourist administration, development and promotion. These activities, in turn, have had an important influence on matters such as the improvement of highways and the opening up of national parks and foreshores.[citation needed]

A White Paper was produced analysing the tourist industry in Australia in 2003.[17] A Tourism 2020 strategy[18] was produced and implemented.

Prior to the COVID-19 and 5 major variants, domestic tourism was and continues to be a significant part of the tourism industry, representing 73% of the total direct tourism GDP and has taken on an even greater role. However, in 2021 during the pandemic, Australians travelled intrastate and also interstate when borders were open. From November 2021, borders for Australia were opened and fully vaccinated Australians were permitted to fly overseas without exemption, although the range of countries was added to Malaysia, Singapore, New Zealand and other countries in December with citizens from Japan and South Korea allowed to enter the country, from 1 December 2021.[19][20][21] Following the significant consultation on the replacement Tourism 2030 strategy, its launch was interrupted by COVID-19 leading to the Government Commissioning an Expert Panel led by the former Tourism Minister Martin Ferguson to provide recommendations.[22]

Eventually, the updated Tourism 2030 document titled THRIVE (THe Re-Imagined Visitor Economy) 2030 strategy[23] was finalised and published in March 2022. The document was updated to reflect the new Government's initiatives and policy priorities as well as industry actions and State and Territory support statements and launched on 17 March 2023.[24]


The Australian Trade and Investment Commission has tourism policy and programs responsibility in the Australian Government with Tourism Australia responsible for marketing Australia. State and territory government jurisdictions have tourism policy departments and/or tourism marketing authorities along with regional tourism organisations. The industry has a wide range of stakeholder bodies including the Australian Tourism Industry Council (ATIC),[25] which includes promotion of the Australian Tourism Accreditation Program, the Australian Tourism Awards and Star Ratings Australia; the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry Tourism Chamber, and the Australian Tourism Export Council (ATEC).[26]


Fitzroy Island, Queensland.
A tourist plane prepares for take-off from the Melaleuca Airstrip in the South West Wilderness of Tasmania

Australia's international tourism campaigns have focused on Australia's laid back style, such as the 1980s advertising campaign featuring actor Paul Hogan telling American tourists "I'll slip an extra shrimp on the barbie for you", or its cheeky side, as in its controversial 2006 campaign in the United Kingdom using the Australian colloquialism slogan "So where the bloody hell are you?".[citation needed]

Tourism Australia's "No Leave No Life" campaign was launched in March 2009 by the Federal Minister for Tourism, the Hon. Martin Ferguson AM MP. This campaign was designed to remind employees of the personal and professional benefits of taking annual leave, and of taking that leave in Australia. On 30 June 2009, there were 126 million days of stockpiled annual leave in the Australian economy.[27] At the end of the June 2010 quarter, this number had decreased to 117 million days, following falls in the preceding three quarters.

Tourism Australia's consumer campaign "There's Nothing Like Australia" invited Australians to share their favourite Australian place or experience with the world. The campaign is based on research conducted by Tourism Australia that showed Australians were eager to get involved in promoting their country. It was developed to involve Australians because they are the experts on what makes Australia unlike anywhere else. The core message, that "There's Nothing Like Australia" was designed for longevity through different mediums, audiences and activities.[28]

Types of tourists[edit]

Tourists by country[edit]

Country 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2019[29]
 China 120,000 250,000 708,900 839,000 1,310,900 1,323,000
 New Zealand 817,000 1,098,900 1,100,000 1,241,400 1,309,000 1,272,000
 United Kingdom 580,400 708,800 657,600 652,100 688,400 674,000
 United States 488,100 370,300 393,100 411,000 433,300 764,000
 Singapore 285,700 266,100 339,800 372,100 395,800 407,000
 Japan 820,000 685,300 324,400 326,500 335,500 445,000
 Malaysia 152,100 166,000 278,100 324,500 338,800 346,000
 South Korea 157,400 250,500 197,500 204,100 230,100 256,000
 Hong Kong 154,100 159,500 183,500 201,600 219,700 280,000
 India n/a n/a 168,600 196,600 233,100 350,000
Total 4,931,400 5,499,100 6,382,000 6,868,000 7,428,600 8,600,000
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics[30][31][32]

International tourists[edit]

Monthly visitor departures, by state where they spent the most time, since 1991. New South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria are the top three states for visitor numbers.

In 2019, the majority of international visitors to Australia were from China, New Zealand, the United States and the UK, with visitors from China growing substantially from the early 2000s.[30][31][32]

Growth in tourism in 2019 was led by education and holiday travel. Education visitors were up 5% to 586,000, with spending increasing by 8% to a record $12.7 billion. Holiday visitors were up 4% to almost 4 million, with spending growing by 6% to $16.9 billion.[33]


Australia is popular for people engaging in backpacker tourism. Spending more time in Australia, these travellers tend to explore considerably more of the country. Many backpackers participate in working holidays enabling them to stay longer in the country. Working holiday visas for Australia are available for those aged 18 to 30 for most citizens from Western Europe, Canada, the United States, and some developed East Asian nations such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea.[34] More than 111,000 of these visas were issued between July and December 2022, compared to 23,000 over the same period in 2021. This brings them back in line with pre-pandemic levels. As a result of this, hostel revenue is projected to grow by 7.9% in the 2023-24 financial year.[35]

Domestic tourism[edit]

The domestic tourism market is estimated at $63 billion.[36] In 2009, the Australian domestic market experienced a 10% slump in the number of visitor nights.[37] Domestic tourism in general and in particular free caravan and camping sites for overnight accommodation experienced strong demand in 2012.[38]

Australians are big domestic travellers, with a profusion of seaside resort towns in every state (many located on or near good surfing beaches), mountain retreats, plentiful national parks, rivers, fishing locations, wine growing regions, as well as domestic visitation of the major tourist spots.[citation needed] Domestic tourism peaks during the Australian school holidays.

In 2011, a leading Australian travel agent warned that low-cost carriers such as AirAsia and Jetstar who offered cheap packages to Asia threatened the domestic tourism market.[39]


Country / Region Description[40]
Australia (Domestic) For the year ended 31 December 2009, the total economic value of domestic tourism measured $63.3 billion, with 66.1 million overnight trips taken in Australia by Australian residents aged 15 years and over.
United States There was $2.126 billion in total expenditure from the United States in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the United States market has the potential to grow to between $4.530 billion and $5.519 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Canada Canada was Australia's twelfth largest inbound market for total expenditure in 2010, with $700 million spent on trips to Australia.
Argentina Argentina is one of Tourism Australia's developing markets. Arrivals to Australia from Argentina continue to perform well, with visiting friends and relatives, holiday and education segments reporting good growth from a small base.
Brazil 46,400 tourists from Brazil visited Australia in 2014–2015, an increase in 19% from the year prior.[41]
China There was $3.26 billion in total expenditure from the China market in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that China has the potential to grow to between $7.406 billion and $9.022 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
India There was $0.826 billion in total expenditure from the Indian market in 2010. In 2019 the expenditure was $1.8 billion, up 68%.[29] The tourism industry potential estimates that India has the potential to grow to between $1.854 billion and $2.258 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Hong Kong Hong Kong was Australia's eleventh largest inbound market for total expenditure in 2010, with $0.808 billion spent on trips to Australia.
Indonesia Indonesia was Australia's thirteenth largest inbound market for total expenditure in 2010, with $0.608 billion spent on trips to Australia.
South Korea There was $1.279 billion in total expenditure from South Korea in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the South Korean market has the potential to grow to between $2.792 billion and $3.401 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Malaysia There was $1.047 billion in total expenditure from Malaysia in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the Malaysian market has the potential to grow to between $2.046 billion and $2.492 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Taiwan Tourists from Taiwan increased to 121,400 in the year ending April 2015, an increase of 9.1% from the previous year. The total inbound economic value of the Taiwan market increased by 21 per cent to $398 million.
Singapore There was $1.199 billion in total expenditure from Singapore in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the Singapore market has the potential to grow to between $2.266 billion and $2.760 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Thailand Thailand is ranked 15th among Australia's source markets in terms of arrivals. Australia received a total of 77,500 visitors from Thailand in 2008/09, a decrease of 8 per cent compared to the previous year.
Vietnam There were 37,246 arrivals from Vietnam in the calendar year 2010, an increase of seven per cent on the previous year.
United Kingdom There was $3.184 billion in total expenditure from the United Kingdom in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the United Kingdom market has the potential to grow to between $5.479 billion and $6.675 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Netherlands The total inbound economic value of the Netherlands market was $300 million in 2008/09 which was a three per cent increase in the previous year.
Germany There was $0.910 billion in total expenditure from Germany in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that Germany has the potential to grow to between $1.902 billion and $2.316 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Switzerland Australia received a total of 53,600 visitors from Switzerland in 2014/2015. The total inbound economic value was $270 million which was one per cent less than the previous year.
France There was $0.561 billion in total expenditure from France in 2010. The tourism industry potential estimates that the France market has the potential to grow to between $1.153 billion and $1.405 billion in total expenditure by 2020.
Nordic The total inbound economic value of the Nordic market increased by 5 per cent during 2008/2009 and was valued at $506 million. Australia received a total of 58,700 visitors from the Nordic region in 2008/09.
Ireland Australia received a total of 64,420 visitors from Ireland in 2008/09, a decrease of 1 per cent compared to the previous year. The total inbound economic value increased 3 per cent to A$479 million in 2008/09.
Spain Despite a strong increase in October visitor arrivals, total arrivals year to date (YTD) continue to be well below last year and Spain continues to be one of the hardest-hit European markets.
Italy There were 73,200 visitor arrivals from Italy in 2014–2015.


Jamison Valley in the Blue Mountains


Australia has a diverse geography, containing many distinct geographical features and unique fauna. Ecotourism accounts for a large portion of Australia's domestic and international tourism, with two thirds of all international visitors in 2016 having engaged in nature tourism in some way.[42] Popular activities include skiing, surfing, hiking, camping and whale watching.

Whale watching is available seasonally on almost all of Australia's subtropical coast. Boat tours are usually offered in coastal towns, although whales can be easily viewed from the shoreline. Whale watching hubs include Hervey Bay, Eden and Bateman's Bay.[43]

Snorkelling on the Great Barrier Reef, 2011

Arts and cultural tourism[edit]

Many tourists that visit Australia engage with cultural tourism, including some 54% of international tourists and 26% of domestic tourists in 2015.[44] Cultural tourism is most significant in Australia's urban areas, however most towns will offer some sort of heritage tourism.


Year-round, Australia has many events, which attract both domestic and international tourists. The Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras is an annual event that attractions thousands of international tourists.[45]

The World’s second largest annual Arts festival The Adelaide Fringe (only smaller than The Edinburgh Festival Fringe) welcomed 2.7 million attendees in 2019.

The 2000 Sydney Olympics resulted in significant inbound and domestic tourism to Sydney. During the games, Sydney hosted 362,000 domestic and 110,000 international visitors. In addition, up to 4 billion people watched the games worldwide.[46] The 2003 Rugby World Cup attracted 65,000 international visitors to Australia.[46] Schoolies Week is an annual celebration of Year 12 school leavers in late November, many of whom travel to the Gold Coast, where in 2011 they were expected to boost the economy by $60 million.[47]

Australia's icons[edit]

The Sydney Opera House

Major Australian icons for tourists to visit include:

See also[edit]

Beach of Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast


  1. ^ "The Beach". Australian Government: Culture Portal. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Commonwealth of Australia tatti a. 17 March 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
  2. ^ "World Tourism Barometer (International Tourist Arrivals by Country of Destination)". World Tourism Organization. December 2020. doi:10.18111/wtobarometereng.2020.18.1.7. S2CID 241989515.
  3. ^ a b Tourism Research Australia. "Tourism Satellite Account 2018-2019". Archived from the original on 17 April 2023. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  4. ^ a b c Value of Tourism (20 August 2021). "Tourism Australia tourism statistics". Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  5. ^ International Visitors in Australia Year Ending Dec 2019 (December 2019). "TRA IVS data". TRA. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 9 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ "5249.0 – Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account, 2010–11". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 12 October 2021.
  7. ^ "Working with Tourism Australia GLOBAL MARKETING PROSPECTUS 2013/14" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2013-10-10.
  8. ^ "2012 in Numbers: Australian Tourism Statistics". Car Hire Search. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
  9. ^ Nicole Chettle (4 June 2013). "Australia targets China for tourism boost". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  10. ^ "Chinese Tourism in Australia – Statistics". Camper Champ. Retrieved 2020-03-19.
  11. ^ "Australian Tourism Industry 2020 | Travel Research & Statistics". Budget Direct. Retrieved 2021-10-01.
  12. ^ "We depend so much more on Chinese travellers now. That makes the impact of coronavirus novel". Inside Retail. 2020-02-13. Retrieved 2021-10-01.
  13. ^ Robert Upe (6 June 2013). "What rich Chinese tourists want – and where they're going to get it". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  14. ^ Visitors – Visas & Immigration
  15. ^ "OVERSEAS PUBLICITY". News (HOME ed.). Adelaide. May 1, 1929. p. 4. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
  16. ^ Rolls, Mitchell; Johnston, Anna, 1972- (2016), Travelling home, Walkabout magazine and mid-twentieth-century Australia, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-78308-537-8{{citation}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Tourism White Paper: A Medium to Long Term Strategy for Tourism (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia. 2003. OCLC 223716418. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-28.
  18. ^ "Tourism 2020 strategy". 5 July 2021.
  19. ^ Choudhury, Saheli Roy (2021-11-01). "Australian borders are finally open. Here's who will be allowed in". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-11-01.
  20. ^ "Australia's border open after 590 days of restricted access". November 2021. Retrieved 2021-11-01.
  21. ^ "Australia to welcome Japanese and South Korean visa holders, international students and skilled migrants from December 1". Sky News.
  22. ^ "Reimagining the Visitor Economy Expert Panel". Austrade. Retrieved 9 Jan 2022.
  23. ^ "The Re-Imagined Visitor Economy Strategy". Austrade. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  24. ^ "THRIVE 2030 strategy".
  25. ^ Australian Tourism Industry Council, Australian Tourism Industry Council, 2000, retrieved 4 March 2019
  26. ^ ATEC : Australian Tourism Export Council, Australian Tourism Export Council, 2000, retrieved 4 March 2019
  27. ^ Annual Report 2008–2009 (PDF). Tourism Australia. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  28. ^ Tourism Australia Annual Report 2009–2010,
  29. ^ a b Tourist numbers from India are booming. But they're not here for a holiday
  30. ^ a b "Overseas Arrivals and Departures, Australia Dec 2010". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  31. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-01-09.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ a b Visitors by country of residence Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "LATEST INTERNATIONAL VISITOR SURVEY (IVS) RESULTS – Year Ending June 2019". Archived from the original on 2020-12-21. Retrieved 2019-10-13.
  34. ^ "Visa Options – Working Holiday Makers – Visas & Immigration". Canberra: Department of Home Affairs. 2008-10-29. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
  35. ^ "IBISWorld - Industry Market Research, Reports, and Statistics". Retrieved 2024-01-19.
  36. ^ Louise Wallace (13 June 2012). "Tourism Australia's domestic tourism campaign". Travel Weekly. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  37. ^ Stuart Innes (17 September 2009). "Domestic tourism drives". Adelaide Now. News Limited. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  38. ^ "Growing Domestic Tourism". Media Release. Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. 12 September 2012. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  39. ^ Angela Saurine (16 December 2011). "Budget airlines slowly killing domestic tourism, expert warns". News Limited. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  40. ^ Archived 2015-09-22 at the Wayback Machine[bare URL PDF]
  41. ^ "Tourism Australia Annual Report 2014/15" (PDF). Retrieved 27 February 2016.[permanent dead link]
  42. ^ Unlocking Our Great Outdoors (PDF) (Report). Tourism and Transport Forum Australia. June 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2023.
  43. ^ The humpback whales of Eastern Australia (Report). Department of the Environment and Water Resources. 2007.
  44. ^ CULTURAL & HERITAGE TOURISM IN AUSTRALIA (PDF) (Report). Tourism & Transport Forum Australia. April 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  45. ^ "World's best festivals: Sydney Gay & Lesbian Mardi Gras". Lonely Planet. 9 December 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  46. ^ a b "1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 2005". 21 January 2005. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
  47. ^ "Eye in the sky to keep watch over schoolies". Brisbane Times. Fairfax Media. 19 November 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  48. ^ "Australia's Icons". Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.

External links[edit]