Principality of Abkhazia

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Principality of Abkhazia
აფხაზეთის სამთავრო
Аԥсуа Аҳра
Abassia
1463[1]–1864
Motto: Ух хатыр акуца (Abkhaz)
Uh khatir akutsa
("Take care of your self")
The Principality of Abkhazia (Abassia) in the 1850s
The Principality of Abkhazia (Abassia) in the 1850s
StatusPart of Kingdom of Imereti
Dependency of Ottoman Empire since 1578
Independent since 1806, from the Ottoman Empire.
The autonomy of the Russian Empire since 1810[3]
CapitalSukhumi, Lykhny (1810)
Official languagesAbkhazian, Georgian (official and literary),[4][5][6][7][8] Turkish (since the time of the Ottoman rule)[9][10]
Common languagesAbkhaz[11][12][13]
Religion
Orthodox Christianity, Islam (since the time of the Ottoman rule)[14][15]
GovernmentPrincipality
Prince, Bey, Apsha 
• c.1451-1465 (first)
Rabia Sharvashidze
• 1823–1864 (last)
Mikhail Sharvashidze
Historical eraEarly Modern Period
• Established
1463[1]
• Disestablished
1864
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Imereti
Russian Empire
Ottoman Empire

The Principality of Abkhazia (Georgian: აფხაზეთის სამთავრო, romanized: apkhazetis samtavro, Abkhaz: Апсуа Аҳра) emerged as a separate feudal entity in the 15th-16th centuries, amid the civil wars in the Kingdom of Georgia that concluded with the dissolution of the unified Georgian monarchy. The principality retained a degree of autonomy under Ottoman and then Russian rule, but was eventually absorbed into the Russian Empire in 1864.

Background[edit]

Abkhazia, as a duchy (saeristavo) within the Kingdom of Georgia, was previously referred as the Duchy of Tskhumi was ruled by the clan of Sharvashidze (aka Shervashidze, Chachba, or Sharashia) since the 12th century. The sources are very scarce about the Abkhazian history of that time. The Genoese established their trading factories along the Abkhazian coastline in the 14th century, but they functioned for a short time. When the Georgian kingdom was embroiled in a bitter civil war in the 1450s, the Sharvashidzes joined a major rebellion against King George VIII of Georgia, which saw him defeated at the hands of the rebels at Chikhori in 1463. As a result, Georgia split into three rival kingdoms and five principalities. The Abkhazian princes were the vassals of the Principality of Mingrelia under the dynasty of Dadiani(-Bediani), which, in turn, was subordinated to the Kingdom of Imereti. The vassalage was, however, largely nominal, and both Mingrelian and Abkhazian rulers not only successfully fought for their independence, but contested borders with each other and with Imereti. The independence of Abkhazia was largely symbolic as the region was generally left alone as the kings of Imereti had their hands full governing their designated area. In 1490, the split became official as Georgia was split by treaty into the Kingdom of Kartli, Imereti, of which Abkhazia was a part, Kakheti and Principality of Samtskhe.[16]

The 16th-18th centuries[edit]

In the 1570s, the Ottoman navy occupied the fort of Tskhumi, turning it into the Turkish fortress of Suhum-Kale. Abkhazia came under the influence of Turkey and Islam, although Christianity was but slowly replaced and it was not until the second half of the 18th century that the ruling Sharvashidze family embraced Islam. Until then, Abkhazia, secured from large-scale invasions by its mountainous location and impassable forests, had retained independence and profited from commerce in traditional Caucasian commodities, that of slaves not excepted.

Archival document "Description of the Abassia country"[17]


Throughout the 16th–18th centuries, the Abkhazian lords were involved in the incessant border conflicts with the Mingrelian princes. As a result, the Sharvashidze potentates were able to expand their possessions in the east, first to the river Ghalidzga, and then to the Enguri, which serves as today's boundary between Abkhazia and Georgia proper. After the death of the Abkhazian prince Zegnak circa 1700, his principality was divided among his sons. The oldest brother Rostom established himself as a prince of Abkhazia proper, also known as the Bzyb Abkhazia, on the coast from the modern-day Gagra on the Bzyb River to the Ghalidzga river, with the residence in the village of Lykhny; Jikeshia received Abjua between the Ghalidzga and the Kodori; and Kvapu became a lord of a county on the coast extending from the Ghalidzga to the Inguri, subsequently known as the country of Samurzakan’o after Kvapu's son Murzakan. The highlands of Dal-Tzabal (Tzebelda, Tsabal) were without any centralized government, but were dominated by the clan of Marshan. Sadzny, formerly known as Zygia (Jiketi of the Georgian sources) extended north to Abkhazia proper between the modern-day cities of Gagra and Sochi, and was run by Gechba, Arydba and Tsanba clans. These polities included also several minor fiefdoms governed by the representatives of the Sharvashidze-Chachba house or other noble families such as Achba (Anchabadze), Emhaa (Emukhvari), Ziapsh-Ipa, Inal-Ipa, Chabalurkhua and Chkhotua. All these princedoms were more or less dependent on the princes of Abkhazia proper.

The book Sukhum-Kale Istanbul

Between the Ottoman and Russian empires[edit]

Keilash Bey seems to have been the first presiding prince of Abkhazia (circa 1780-1808)[18] to embrace Islam, and was given, on this account, the fort of Suhum-Kale. These conversions of the Abkhazian princes were, however, not irreversible; during the 19th century, various Sharvashidzes shifted back and forth across the religious divide, as the Russians and Ottomans struggled for control of the region. The first attempt to enter into relation with Russia was made by the said Keilash Bey in 1803, shortly after the incorporation of eastern Georgia into the expanding Tsarist empire (1801). After the assassination of this prince by his son Aslan-Bey on May 2, 1808, the pro-Ottoman orientation prevailed but for a short time. On July 2, 1810, the Russian Marines stormed Suhum-Kale and had Aslan-Bey replaced with his rival brother, Sefer-Bey (1810–1821), who had converted to Christianity and assumed the name of George. Abkhazia joined the Russian empire as an autonomous principality.

The Abkhazian Mosque

However, George's rule, as well of his successors, was limited to the neighbourhood of Suhum-Kale and the Bzyb area garrisoned by the Russians while the other parts had remained under the rule of the Muslim nobles. The next Russo-Turkish war strongly enhanced the Russian positions, leading to a further split in the Abkhaz elite, mainly along religious divisions. During the Crimean War (1853–1856), Russian forces had to evacuate Abkhazia and Prince Michael (1822–1864) seemingly switched to the Ottomans. Later on, the Russian presence strengthened and the highlanders of Western Caucasia were finally subjugated by Russia in 1864. The autonomy of Abkhazia, which had functioned as a pro-Russian "buffer zone" in this troublesome region, was no more needed to the Tsarist government and the rule of the Sharvashidze came to an end; in November 1864, Prince Michael was forced to renounce his rights and resettle in Voronezh. Abkhazia was incorporated in the Russian Empire as a special military province of Suhum-Kale which was transformed, in 1883, into an okrug as part of the Kutais Guberniya.

Lykhny revolt[edit]

Flag of Lykhnensky revolt

In July 1866 an attempt made by the Russian authorities to collect information concerning the economic conditions of the Abkhaz, for the purpose of taxation, led to the Lykhny revolt. The rebels proclaimed Michael Sharvashidze's son George as prince and marched on Sukhumi. Only the strong Russian reinforcements led by General Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky were able to suppress the revolt by the same August. The harsh Russian reaction led, subsequently, to a considerable emigration of the Abkhaz muhajirs to the Ottoman Empire, especially after the locals took part in the rebellion of the Caucasian mountaineers incited by the landing of Turkish troops in 1877. As a result, many areas became virtually deserted and the population of Abkhazia was reduced threefold.

picture Jean Victor Adam «The Abaza(Abkhazia) Horseman»

Rulers[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010)
  2. ^ "Г. А. Дзидзария. Восстание 1866 года в Абхазии (Сух., 1955)". apsnyteka.org. Retrieved 2024-03-03.
  3. ^ Георгий Анчабадзе. "Кавказская война. 1810-1864". apsnyteka.org. Archived from the original on 2022-12-08. Retrieved 2023-02-28.
  4. ^ Igor V. Bondyrev; Zurab V. Davitashvili; Vijay P. Singh (2015). The Geography of Georgia: Problems and Perspectives. Springer. p. 28. ISBN 978-3-319-05413-1. However, the official language of Abkhazia principality remained Georgian and Abkhazian aristocracy was part of Georgian noble society.
  5. ^ "Şerafettin Terim. Kafkas Tarihinde: Abhazlar Ve Çerkezlik Mefhumu / Шерафеттин Терим. История Кавказа: Абхазы и черкесская концепция (Стамбул, 1976; на тур. яз.)". apsnyteka.org. Retrieved 2024-02-25.
  6. ^ "Эвлия Челеби. Книга путешествия. Приложение 1". apsnyteka.org. Retrieved 2024-02-25.
  7. ^ Çirg, Ashad (1993). "Adıgelerin XIX. yüzyıldaki politik tarihinin incelenmesi gerekir" [Adyghe XIX. century political history needs to be studied]. Kafkasya Gerçeği dergisi (in Turkish). 11: 61–62.
  8. ^ Bondyrev, Igor V; Davitashvili, Zurab V; Singh, V. P (2015). The geography of Georgia: problems and perspectives. Springer. p. 28. ISBN 978-3-319-05413-1. OCLC 912320815.
  9. ^ Ачугба, Т. А. (2010). ЭТНИЧЕСКАЯ ИСТОРИЯ АБХАЗОВ XIX – XX вв. Сухум: Академия Наук Абхазии. p. 155.
  10. ^ "Т. А. Ачугба. Этническая история абхазов XIX – XX вв. Этнополитические и миграционные аспекты. Глава I". apsnyteka.org. Retrieved 2024-03-04.
  11. ^ Анчабадзе, З.В. (2013). Из истории средневековой Абхазии (in Russian). Tbilisi State University. p. 277. ISBN 978-5-458-39187-0.
  12. ^ "Şerafettin Terim. Kafkas Tarihinde: Abhazlar Ve Çerkezlik Mefhumu / Шерафеттин Терим. История Кавказа: Абхазы и черкесская концепция (Стамбул, 1976; на тур. яз.)". apsnyteka.org. Retrieved 2024-02-25.
  13. ^ "Т. А. Ачугба. Этническая история абхазов XIX – XX вв. Этнополитические и миграционные аспекты. Глава I". apsnyteka.org. Retrieved 2024-03-04.
  14. ^ Hewitt, Brian George (2013). The Abkhazians: A Handbook. Springer. p. 208. ISBN 9781136802058. The first evidence of Abkhazian Muslims was given in the 1640s bythe Turkish historian Evliya Qelebi, whose mother was an Abkhazian. On his travels he recorded that the Abkhazians had a mosque and that among them were "many Muslims." This Muslim population, accordingto Qelebi, was hostile to Christians, in spite of not recognising the Quran or being of any religious denomination. Other sources would seem to indicate, however, that although the Christian presence was on the wane, and the dissemination of Islam increasing, evidence of traditional Islam was more apparent among the higher levels of society by the end of the 18th century than among the population at large. The Abkhaz rulers were not in a position to decline Islam, a fact witnessed bythe forced conversion of Shervashidze-Chachba, Abkhazia's ruling prince, to Islam in 1733, following the destruction by the Turks of Elyr, a pilgrimage-site of particular religious significance to the Abkhaz near Ochamchira.
  15. ^ "Станислав Лакоба. Двуглавый орел и традиционная Абхазия". apsnyteka.org (in Russian). 1953-11-23.
  16. ^ Rayfield (2012), p 162
  17. ^ nbpublish.com https://nbpublish.com/. Retrieved 2024-02-25. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  18. ^ World, Abkhaz (2023-11-19). "Sukhum and the Abkhazians in the Light of 16th Century Ottoman Documents, by Habat Şogan". Abkhaz World | History, Culture & Politics of Abkhazia. Retrieved 2024-02-25.
  19. ^ "Михаил Гумба. Келешбей (Сухум, 2014)". apsnyteka.org. Retrieved 2024-03-03.
  20. ^ "§12. Владетель Абхазии Келешбей Чачба". www.apsuara.ru. Retrieved 2024-03-03.
  21. ^ "Михаил Гумба. Келешбей (Сухум, 2014)". apsnyteka.org. Retrieved 2024-03-03.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]