Banknotes of the Indonesian rupiah

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Variants of Indonesian rupiah's banknotes, issued 1998–2001 and withdrawn in 2008 (except for the Rp1,000 and Rp5,000 notes, which are still in circulation as of 2024 along with newer variants.)
The 2022 series of rupiah banknotes. As of 2022, it is the newest series of notes issued by Bank Indonesia, and it is legal tender alongside the 2016 and 2000-2014 series.
Republic of Indonesia – Rp1 (1945, first year of issue)
Netherlands Indies (Indonesia) – De Javasche Bank 5 gulden banknote (1866, first year resuming issue)
Netherlands Indies (Indonesia) – De Javasche Bank 5 gulden banknote (1937)

The first banknotes used in the archipelago that would become Indonesia were those issued by the United East India Company, credit letters of the rijksdaalder dating between 1783 and 1811. Netherlands Indies gulden government credit paper followed in 1815, and from 1827 to 1842[1] and again from 1866 to 1948[2] gulden notes of De Javasche Bank. Lower denominations (below 5 gulden) were issued by the government in 1919–1920 and in 1939–1940 due to wartime metal shortages, but otherwise day-to-day transactions were conducted using coinage.

Gulden notes were issued by "The Japanese Government" during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies from 1942, becoming "roepiah" in 1943.

The first truly Indonesian rupiah notes, however, were issued in 1946, during the war of independence with the Dutch, following the unilateral proclamation of independence by the Indonesians at the end of World War II on 17 August 1945. This money is known as Oeang Republik Indonesia (ORI; oeang being the old spelling of uang ("money")).

Following the negotiated peace treaty in The Hague of 1949, the ORI was withdrawn, and replaced by an internationally recognised Indonesian rupiah.

The Indonesian rupiah has been subject to numerous devaluations, and in 1965 the existing paper was withdrawn and replaced by a new rupiah at the rate of 1,000 to 1.

Money around independence year[edit]

First series (1945)[edit]

The first 'Indonesian rupiah' bank notes bore the date of the proclamation on new Indonesian money, 17 October 1945, under the authority of the "Republik Indonesia", and were apparently intended for issue on 1 February 1946, but due to the capture of most of the notes, only a tiny number escaped at this time.

The circulation began in earnest in Java from 10 October 1946. The notes were in denominations of Rp0.01, Rp0.05, Rp0.10, Rp12, Rp1, Rp5, Rp10, and Rp100.[3]

1945 Republik Indonesia series
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Serial Printing Issue Withdrawal
Rp0.01 97 × 45 mm Green Keris Counterfeit warning None None 1946 10 October 1946 1 May 1950 Violet underprint
    Green underprint
    Rp0.05 100 × 49 mm Violet Various leaves Counterfeit warning with wings Buffalo underprint (strong)
Dark blue Buffalo underprint (faint)
Rp0.10 105 × 51 mm Black Keris and machete underprint Counterfeit warning Narrow borders
    Brown
    Wide borders
    Rp12 (0.50) 119 × 58 mm Green Horned motif Counterfeit warning Six numbers two letters [01234]nnnnn [LMNPRST] [PRTUVWX] Pink underprint
Orange underprint
Rp1 138 × 65 mm Blue Sukarno, volcano Volcano, counterfeit warning Some without serial, some with six-digit, two-letter serial (1st letter is check code), some with simple two letter code  
Rp5 148 × 71 mm Green Rice stalks, Sukarno Rice stalks, counterfeit warning Six numbers, two letters, first letter is check code; two different serial printing styles  
Rp10 160 × 77 mm Blue Sukarno, volcano Counterfeit warning Six numbers, two letters, or six numbers, three letters. First letter is check code. Several serial printing styles  
Rp100 174 × 86 mm Blue/green Sukarno, keris, horned '100' Counterfeit warning, horned '100' Five numbers, two letters, first letter is check code.  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Second series (1 January 1947)[edit]

The second series of money now emanated from 'Djokjakarta', the Republic's base following the 'Police Action' of 21 July 1947, which had confined the Republicans to Yogyakarta and Central Java. The notes were dated 1 January 1947, in denominations of Rp5, Rp10, Rp25, and Rp100.[4]

1947 First Issue (1 January 1947)
Note Value
Rp5
Rp10
Rp25
Rp100

Third series (26 July 1947)[edit]

The next new issue was dated 26 July 1947, and consisted of Rp12, Rp2+12, Rp25, Rp50, Rp100, and Rp250 notes.[5]

Fourth series (23 August 1948)[edit]

New notes were issued by the national government in 1948, in the bizarre denominations of Rp40, Rp75, Rp100, and Rp400, plus an unissued Rp600 note.[6]

On 19 December 1948, the Dutch seized Yogyakarta, reverting the head office of the then-Republic's central bank Bank Negara Indonesia back to De Javasche Bank, with DJB offices also reopened in Surakarta and Kediri.[7]

It was planned in 1949 to revalue the national rupiah notes of the republic (which were at this time circulating in Java). To do this, "rupiah baru" ('new rupiah') notes were printed. This revaluation did not take place in Java, but some were issued in Aceh instead. The denominations printed were Rp0.10 sen (blue or red), Rp12 (green or red), Rp1 (purple or green), Rp10 (black or brown), Rp25, and Rp100.[8]

Regional Issues[edit]

In addition to the 'national' (but restricted in practice to the central republican enclave in Java) notes, the republican authorities, to discourage the circulation of Dutch money, instructed regional commanders in areas that the national money couldn't reach, to issue their own money, to be unified after full independence.

Java[edit]

The notes issued in Java generally featured text, a signature, and a serial number, all issued on low-grade paper without modern security features such as watermarks, and demonstrated few similarities between areas. Only in a few areas did the notes have any pictures on them. The following notes are known to have been printed:

  • Rp1 and Rp5 notes of "Daerah Kota Blitar" (Blitar, East Java; dated 6 August 1948)
  • Rp12, Rp1, Rp5, and Rp10 notes of "Daerah Bodjonegoro" (Bojonegoro, East Java; dated 15 November 1948)
  • Rp2+12, Rp5 and Rp10 notes of 'Dearah Istimewa Jogjakarta' (the Special Region of Yogyakarta; dated 10 November 1948)
  • Rp5 notes of 'Kota Kediri' (Kediri, East Java; dated 5 August 1948)
  • Rp2+12, Rp5 and Rp10 notes of 'Daerah Karesidenan Kediri' (Kediri Residency; dated 16 October 1948)
  • Rp1, Rp2+12, Rp5, Rp10 notes of 'Daerah Kota Madiun' (Madiun, East Java; dated 1 September 1948)
  • Rp2+12 and Rp5 notes of Magelang Residency, Central Java (dated 1 August 1948 and 25 October 1948)
  • Rp1, Rp2+12, Rp5 and Rp10 notes of Magetan Residency, East Java (dated 17 September 1948)
  • Rp12, Rp1, Rp5 and Rp10 notes of Patjitan Residency, East Java (dated 1948)
  • Rp1, Rp5, Rp10, Rp25 and Rp50 notes of Serang, Banten Residency, West Java (dated 15 December 1947)
  • Rp1, Rp2+12 and Rp5 notes (dated 1 November 1948) and Rp5, Rp10 and Rp25 notes (dated 1 November 1949) of Surakarta Residency, Central Java
  • Rp5 notes of Cepu region (dated 17 August 1948)

Rp25 note of Banten Residency, 15 December 1947

Sumatra[edit]

As with the Java notes, the Sumatran notes are all primitive, lacking security features and printed on poor-quality paper. In most cases, they have some kind of artwork. The following notes are known to have been printed:

  • Rp1, Rp5, Rp10 and Rp100 notes of Pematang Siantar, Sumatra province (dated 31 March 1947)
  • Rp50, Rp100, Rp250, Rp500 and Rp1000 notes of Bengkulu Residency (dated 1 June 1947)
  • Rp50, Rp100, Rp250, Rp500, Rp1000 notes of Palembang Defence Council, South Sumatra (dated 1 August 1947)
  • Rp5, Rp50, Rp100 and Rp250 notes of Serbalawan, Simalungun, North Sumatra (dated 5 August 1947)
  • Rp5, Rp10, Rp25, Rp50, Rp100, and Rp200 notes of Tapanuli Residency (dated 8 August 1947, 8 September 1947, 18 November 1947, 28 April 1948, 11 October 1948, and 23 November 1948 respectively)
  • Rp0.10, Rp0.50, Rp1, Rp2+12, Rp5, Rp10, Rp25, Rp50, Rp100, Rp2,500 and Rp100,000 notes (all dated 21 August 1947), of Asahan Regency North Sumatra, plus Rp1,000, Rp2,500 and Rp100,000 notes (dated 7 February 1948), a Rp 2,000,000 rupiah note (dated 1 and 2 April 1948), a Rp100,000 note (dated "May" 1948), and a Rp250,000 note (dated "April" and "12 April" 1948)
  • Rp50 and Rp100 notes Limapuluh district, North Sumatra (dated 1 September 1947)
  • Rp50 and Rp100 notes of Kualuh Leidong, North Labuhan Batu Regency, North Sumatra (dated 1 September 1947), plus a Rp250 note (dated October 1947), a Rp1,000 note (dated 10 December 1947), a Rp2,500 note (dated 1 January 1948), a Rp5,000 rupiah (dated 13 January 1948), a Rp10,000 note (dated 20 January 1948 and 10 February 1948), a Rp250,000 note (dated 15 February 1948), a Rp25,000 note (dated 22 February 1948), a Rp50,000 note (dated 3 March 1948), a Rp10,000,000 note (dated 15 April 1948), and a Rp25,000,000 note (dated 3 May 1948)
  • Rp0.50, Rp1, and Rp2.50 notes of Banda Aceh, "Aceh residency" (dated 15 September 1947), plus Rp2+12 and Rp5 notes (dated 1 December 1947) and Rp5 and Rp10 notes (dated 15 January 1948)
  • Rp2+12, Rp5, Rp50, Rp100 and Rp500 notes of Labuhan Batu Regency, Rantau Prapat, North Sumatra (1947), plus Rp100, Rp1,000 and Rp2,500 notes (dated 29 November 1947) Rp 5,000 and Rp10,000 notes (January/February 1948), a Rp25,000 note (February 1948), a Rp50,000 note (February/March 1948), a Rp250,000 note (March/April 1948), and Rp5,000,000 and Rp25,000,000 notes (April/May 1948)
  • Rp50 note of Karo Regency, Tigabinangga (dated 17 September 1947), and Rp100, Rp250 and Rp1,000 notes (dated 20 November 1947)
  • Rp1 note of Jambi Residency, East Sumatra (dated 17 September 1947), plus Rp12 and Rp2+12 notes (dated 24 October 1947 and 28 November 1947), Rp5 and Rp10 notes (dated 17 November 1947), Rp2+12, Rp5 and Rp10 notes (dated 27 December 1947), Rp1, Rp5 and Rp10 notes (dated 31 March 1948), a Rp1 note (dated 1 April 1948), and Rp2+12, Rp5 and Rp25 notes (dated 20 May 1948)
  • Rp1 note of Nias (dated 25 September 1947), plus Rp100 and Rp200 notes (dated 20 December 1948) and a Rp500 note (dated 5 January 1949 and 12 November 1949)
  • Rp1, Rp5 and Rp10 notes of Bengkulu, South Sumatra (dated 1 December 1947)
  • Rp10, 50, Rp100, Rp250 and Rp1,000 rupiah of Pagar Alam, South Sumatra (dated 17 December 1947)
  • Rp10 and Rp25 notes of Labuhan Bilik (dated 23 December 1947), plus a Rp100 note (dated January/February 1948), Rp10,000 and Rp100,000 notes (dated 24 February 1948), Rp50,000 (dated 6 March 1948), a Rp250,000 note (dated 25 March 1948), a Rp500,000 note (dated 9 April 1948), and a Rp25,000,000 note (dated 7 May 1948)
  • Rp500 note of Barus, Central Tapanuli Regency (dated 26 December 1947)
  • Rp25 Japanese rupiah of Tandjungkarang, Lampung Residency, Sumatra (dated 15 November 1947), plus Rp50 and Rp100 rupiah notes (dated 15 January 1948)
  • Rp12, Rp1, Rp2+12, Rp5 and Rp10 notes of Lampung Residency, Sumatra (dated 1 June 1948)
  • Rp1, Rp5 and Rp10 notes of Kutacane (1948)
  • Rp10 and Rp50 notes of Koetabumi, North Lampung, Sumatra (1949)
  • Rp100 and Rp250 notes of Langsa, East Aceh (2 January 1949)
  • Rp10 and Rp25 notes of Lintang IV Lawang, Lahat Regency, South Sumatra (dated 17 January 1949)
  • Rp10 notes of Palembang Residency (dated 17 January 1949), plus a Rp50 note (dated 17 April 1949) a Rp40 note (dated 6 July 1949), and a Rp50 note (18 November 1949)
  • Rp250 notes of Kutaradja, North Sumatra (dated 1 March 1949)
  • Rp25 and Rp50 notes of South Pesisir, West Sumatra (dated 1949)
  • Rp20 notes of the South Sumatra Special Military Region (Bukit Barisan) (dated 1 May 1949)
  • Rp40 of Tjurup, Rejang Lebong Regency South Sumatra (dated 1949)

The following notes were all issued by the "Governor of Sumatra" in Bukittinggi:

  • Rp12, Rp1, Rp2+12, Rp5, Rp10 and Rp25 rupiah of "Sumatra Province" (dated 17 August 1947), plus a Rp2+12 note (dated 17 December 1947), Rp1, Rp5 and Rp10 notes (dated 1 January 1948), a Rp25 note (dated 17 January 1948), Rp5, Rp10, Rp25 and Rp50 notes (dated 1 April 1948), and a Rp100 note (dated 17 April 1948)
  • Rp10 for Jambi (17 December 1947)
  • Rp5 rupiah for Riau (17 December 1947)
  • Rp1, Rp2+12, Rp5 and Rp10 for South Sumatra (1 January 1948)
  • Rp5 for East Sumatra (1 January 1948)
  • Rp10 and Rp25 notes for Aceh (1 January 1948)
  • Rp5 for Tapanuli, Northwest Sumatra (1 January 1948)
  • Rp10 for West Sumatra (17 January 1948)

Rp10 note of "Sumatra Province" (dated 1 January 1948)

Rp500 note of Bengkulu Residency (dated 1 June 1947)

Rp1,000 note of Bengkulu Residency (dated 1 June 1947)

1950 onwards: Indonesian independence recognised[edit]

Gulden/roepiah notes (1950-1952)[edit]

Low denomination notes[edit]

The Dutch treasury had in 1947 issued Indonesian language Rp0.10 and Rp0.25 notes. Due to the initial lack of coinage and due to their relatively republic-friendly design, the Indonesian government saw it as expedient to continue to print these notes, and authorised their issue until such time as coinage had been minted, and in sufficient quantity to replace them.

Dutch 'Indonesia' notes of 1947, printed by G. Kolff & Co.
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature note Withdrawal date
Rp0.10 100 × 60 mm Green / Red Floral border Counterfeit warning in Indonesian and Dutch None J.E. van Hoogstraten (Chairman of the Court of Audit), W.A. Alons (Director of Finance) 1 December 1947 1 January 1957
Rp0.25 Brown / Blue Central floral design
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

De Javasche Bank notes[edit]

The peace settlement with the Dutch, negotiated in The Hague in November 1949, had kept De Javasche Bank as the central bank in Indonesia, hence the first notes that were issued for the post-independence rupiah bore its imprint. It was decided that the existing De Javasche Bank money dated 1946 would simply be revised in colour, with the 5 gulden note changing from purple to red and green, the 10 gulden from green to purple, and 25 gulden from red to green. In addition, 50 gulden, 100 gulden, 500 gulden, and 1,000 gulden notes were added, still dated 1946.

Because there were existing Rp0.10 and Rp0.25 notes (which remained as legal tender and continued to be printed), a gap existed between the Rp0.25 Indonesia and 5 gulden De Javasche Bank notes. This was filled with of Rp12, Rp1, and Rp2+12 notes, all dated 1948.[9] The notes in wording were similar to the notes of 5 gulden and up, but the Indonesian text ('roepiah') placed above Dutch ('gulden').

The notes were all printed by Johan Enschede en Zonen based in the Netherlands.

1950 De Javasche Bank notes, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zonen
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp5 150 × 75 mm Green and red Lotus flower Counterfeit warning in Dutch, Indonesian, Javanese, and Chinese; letters DJB 6 numbers and either 2 or 3 letters H. Teunissen (Secretary), R.E. Smits (President) Checkered-pattern rhombus 1946 19 March 1950 13 December 1965 2 June 1950
Rp10 Purple Mangosteen
Rp25 Green Coconut trees at sea shore 18 June 1954
Rp50 Blue Sailboat 13 August 1954
Rp100 Brown Paddy field 18 December 1953
Rp500 Red 6 numbers and 2 letters 24 August 1959
Rp1,000 Grey 5 March 1959 2 November 1954
Rp½ 124 × 64 mm Pink Moon orchid Counterfeit warning in Dutch and Indonesian; letters DJB Letter 'A' (2 sizes), or 'AA', written fractionally over 2 numbers, followed by 6 numbers None 1948 1 December 1957 Last of denomination
Rp1 Blue Coconut trees Letter 'B' (3 sizes), or 'BB', written fractionally over either 1 or 2 numbers, followed by 6 numbers 3 October 1951
Rp2½ Red Jasmine Letter 'C' (2 sizes) over 1 or 2 numbers, followed by 6 numbers
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Republik Indonesia Serikat notes (1950)[edit]

The "Republik Indonesia Serikat" passed legislation on 2 June 1950 to allow it to issue new treasury notes, which were dated 1 January 1950 in denominations of Rp5 and Rp10.[8] This was not long-lasting, as the RIS dissolved on 17 August 1950 (5 years after the original declaration of independence).

The notes were printed by Thomas De La Rue of England and had the date "1 January 1950" printed on the note.

1950 'Republik Indonesia Serikat' Notes, printed by Thomas De La Rue
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Issue date Withdrawal date
Rp5 136 × 64 mm Red Sukarno Rice field "D" over number between 1 and 10, followed by six numbers Sjafruddin Prawiranegara 2 June 1950
Rp10 Purple "E" over number between 1 and 19, followed by six numbers
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Nationalisation of De Javasche Bank: first Republik Indonesia banknotes (1951-1953)[edit]

With the nationalisation of De Javasche Bank via the Emergency Act of 1951, it was decreed that the government would be able to issue notes of Rp1 and Rp2½ denominations. Thus, 'Republik Indonesia' notes dated 1951 were issued in Rp1 and Rp2½ denominations.

Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, first series (landscapes), 1951, printed by Security Banknote Printing Company (USA)
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp1 127 × 66 mm Blue Beach with palms, rice terrace Mountain 2 letters, 1 above the other, 6 numbers Sjafruddin Prawiranegara None "1951"  
Rp2½ Red Beach with cliff, palms Garuda Pancasila  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Formation of Bank Indonesia from De Javasche Bank: second Republik Indonesia banknotes (1953-1965)[edit]

The transformation from DJB to Bank Indonesia (BI) occurred after the Emergency Act of 1951 was renewed as the Currency Act of 1953, and the 1951-issue 1 and 2½ rupiah government notes were reissued with the signature of the new Minister of Finance dated 1953.

Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, second series (landscapes), 1953, printed by Security Banknote Printing Company (USA)
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp1 As 1951 Soemitro Djojohadikoesoemo None (As 1951) "1953"  
Rp2½  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

First series of Bank Indonesia notes (1953-1954)[edit]

Notes featuring the new name of the nationalised De Javasche bank – 'Bank Indonesia' – were prepared dated 1952, in denominations of Rp5, Rp10, Rp25, Rp50, Rp100, Rp500, and Rp1,000, signed by Indra Kasoema as Director, and Sjafruddin Prawiranegara as Governor. The notes began circulating from July 1953 to November 1954 depending on denomination.

1952 Bank Indonesia notes ('culture series')
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Printer's mark Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp5 135 × 75 mm Blue Ibu Kartini Floral design, serpents 5' followed by 1, 2, or 3 letters, then 5 numbers Thomas De La Rue 2 July 1953 16 January 1961 1 September 1959
Rp10 Brown Statue of Dewi Sri Floral design, beasts 2 (Joh. Enschede) or 3 (Joh. Enschede/Perkeba) letters, then six numbers Joh. Enschede en Zonen/Pertjetakan Kebajoran 5 September 1959
Rp25 142 × 82 mm Blue Kalpataru Batik ship 18 June 1954
Rp50 Green Trees/bird Batik 2 or 3 letters then six numbers Joh. Enschede en Zonen 13 August 1954 1 August 1959
Rp100 Brown Lion statue, Diponegoro 2 stylised birds kissing 18 December 1953 15 December 1960 24 June 1958
Rp500 150 × 90 mm Red/green Hindu relief Batik 21 September 1959 6 January 1959
Rp1,000 Green/red Padmapani statue, Prambanan relief Wooden dish from Kasepuhan Palace, Cirebon two or three letters, starting W/WW, then six numbers 2 November 1954 7 August 1958 2 September 1958
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Despite the new notes, which meant that paper bearing the name of DJB was no longer printed, the DJB notes dated '1946', and in fact circulating since 1950, remained legal tender right up to the 'new rupiah' of 1965 (which invalidated ALL previous money at that point), although some old DJB notes were repealed, as follows:

  • 2 March 1956: 1000 gulden '1946' note dating from 1950 withdrawn, effective 5 March 1959, due to rampant counterfeiting.
  • 22 November 1957: Rp1 and Rp2½ '1948' DJB notes withdrawn, effective 1 December 1957, because these denominations of notes were the issuing privilege of the government under the 1914 Currency Act in force at the time of their issue, and hence De Javasche Bank had lacked the authority for their issue.

The few Netherlands Indies government notes (all low denomination) still legal tender were repealed as follows:

  • 1 January 1954: all "Nederlandsch Indie" government money withdrawn: 1/2, 1, and 2½ gulden notes, all dating from early World War 2, 1940
  • 1 January 1957: Rp0.10 and Rp0.25 "Indonesia" "1947" notes withdrawn (these were also issued by the Republic of Indonesia)

1954 brought a redesign of the Indonesian government Rp1 and Rp2½ notes, which were re-dated with the new Minister of Finance's signature in 1956.

Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, third series (ethnic people), 1954, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp1 130 × 60 mm Blue Javanese girl Garuda Pancasila 3 letters, 6 numbers Ong Eng Die None "1954"  
Rp2½ Red and green Rotinese man  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, fourth series (ethnic people), 1956, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp1 130 × 60 mm As 1954 Jusuf Wibisono None "1956"  
Rp2½  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Second "Animals" series of Bank Indonesia banknotes (1958-1959)[edit]

In 1957, governor of Bank Indonesia Sjafruddin Prawiranegara commissioned a new series of notes from English printer, Thomas De La Rue & Co. However, Syafruddin's involvement with PRRI meant that he was replaced in January 1958 as governor by Loekman Hakim. Specimens were produced in denominations of Rp5, Rp10, Rp25, Rp50, Rp100, Rp500, Rp1,000, and Rp5,000, and the first of these to be brought into circulation were the Rp100 and Rp1,000 notes, in 1958, due to the counterfeiting of these denominations of the 1952 series (the counterfeit notes can be distinguished by the wavy line watermark being printed onto the paper rather than a true watermark).

The issue of the notes was interrupted somewhat by a devaluation of 24 August 1959, with Rp500 (tiger) and Rp1,000 (elephant) notes devalued to Rp50 (crocodile) and Rp100 (squirrel) in September 1959. The Rp2,500 and Rp5,000 notes were deemed unnecessary thanks to the devaluation. The Rp2,500 rupiah note was eventually issued three years later due to continued high inflation, while the Rp5,000 note was never issued. The Rp10 and Rp25 notes were only circulated for 3 days, although they remained legal tender, and are today extremely rare.

In addition to the 8 notes designed, Loekman commissioned a new Rp2,500 note. Apart from the Rp100 and Rp1,000 notes, the remaining high denomination note, the Rp500, was released on 6 January 1959.

Animal Series (not dated, first printed 1957, except for the 2500 rupiah), all printed Thomas De La Rue
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Signature Watermark Serial Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp5 125 × 65 mm Green and blue Gibbon Prambanan Sjafruddin Prawiranegara (Governor) TRB. Sabaroedin (Director) Diponegoro "5" followed by 1, 2, or 3 letters, then 5 numbers 1 September 1959 10 June 1962 19 January 1960
Rp10 133 × 69 mm Brown and green Deer Kora Kora "10" followed by 3 letters, then 5 numbers 5 September 1959 3 January 1961 2 January 1960
Rp25 141 × 73 mm Brown and red Javan rhinoceros Tapanuli traditional house "25" followed by 3 letters, then 5 numbers
Rp50 149 × 77 mm Red Crocodile Grand Mosque of Medan "50" then 1 or 2, letters then 5 numbers 1 August 1959 21 May 1965 19 January 1960
Rp100 157 × 81 mm Green and red Squirrel Istana Bogor "100" then 1, 2, or 3 letters then 4 numbers 24 June 1958 8 September 1959
Rp500 165 × 85 mm Red/green Sumatran tiger Rice terrace "500" then 1 or 2 letters then 4 numbers 6 January 1959 21 September 1959 Denomination withdrawn – reintroduced 1 May 1960
Rp1,000 173 × 89 mm Blue and brown Elephant Fisherman "1000" then 1 or 2 letters, then 4 numbers 2 September 1958 Denomination withdrawn – reintroduced 10 May 1960
Rp2,500 181 × 92 mm Green and blue Komodo dragon Fishing village, Martapura River Loekman Hakim (Governor), TRB Sabaroedin (Director) "2500" then 1 letter or 2 letters, then 4 numbers; or "2500" then 2 letters over "I" plus 5 numbers 1 September 1962 13 March 1966 Last of denomination
Rp5,000 190 × 97 mm Red Bull Merchant ship and tugboat Sjafruddin Prawiranegara (Governor) TRB. Sabaroedin (Director) 5000A0000 Unissued specimen only
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

First Indonesian-designed notes, the "handicrafts" series (1959)[edit]

8 September 1959 brought the first purely Indonesian-designed notes, issued by the state printer Pertjetakan Kebajoran. Notes issued are worth Rp5 and Rp100 (see full "handicrafts" section below for full details).

Thomas De La Rue flowers and birds banknotes (1960)[edit]

Yet another series of notes, the 'flowers' series was issued by Bank Indonesia in 1960 (showing flowers on the obverse and birds on the reverse), and dated 1 January 1959, but issued in 1960. These notes were printed by Thomas De La Rue & Co. Ltd., England.

Flowers and birds series, dated '1 January 1959', issued 1960, printed by Thomas De La Rue
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Signature Watermark Serial Issue date Withdrawal date
Rp5 125 × 65 mm Blue and yellow Epiphyllum oxypetalum 4 magpie-robins Loekman Hakim (Governor), TRB Sabaroedin (Director) Garuda Pancasila '5' followed by 1, 2, or 3 letters, then 5 numbers 19 January 1960 13 June 1966
Rp10 133 × 68 mm Red and green Hoya flowers 4 cockatoos '10' followed by 1, 2 or 3 letters, then 5 numbers 2 January 1960
Rp25 141 × 72 mm Green and blue Nelumbo nucifera 2 great egrets '25' followed by 1, 2, or 3 letters, then 5 numbers
Rp50 149 × 77 mm Orange and purple Stylised Nelumbo nucifera 2 white-bellied fish-eagles '50' then 1, 2 or 3 letters then 5 numbers 19 January 1960
Rp100 157 × 81 mm Purple Amorphophallus campanulatus 5 rhinoceros hornbills '100' then 1, 2, or 3 letters then 5 numbers
Rp500 165 × 85 mm Blue and red Bougainvillea Green junglefowls '500' then 1, 2, or 3 letters then 4 numbers, or '500', 1 letter, 5 numbers 10 May 1960 13 March 1966
Rp1,000 173 × 89 mm Black and blue Jasmine flower Bird-of-paradise '1000' then 1, 2, or 3 letters, then 4 numbers, or '1000' then 2 letters over 'I', then 5 numbers 1 May 1960
Rp2,500 180 x 92 mm Orange and red Flowers Great argus displaying 2500AA0000 Unissued specimen only
Rp5,000   Violet Flowers, Pura split gate   TRB Sabaroedin (Director)   Uniface proof note only
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

New design for government banknotes (1960-1961)[edit]

A new design for the Rp1 and Rp2½ government notes was issued in 1960 showing agricultural workers, also re-dated with the new Minister of Finance's signature 1961.

Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, fifth series (agriculture theme), 1960, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp1 120 × 60 mm Green and yellow Rice farmers Vegetables 3 letters, 6 numbers Ir. Djuanda K. None "1960" 13 June 1966
Rp2½ Blue Corn farmers Corn and paddy
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, sixth series (agriculture theme), 1961, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp1 As 1960 R.M. Notohamiprodjo None "1961" 13 June 1966
Rp2½
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Complete handicrafts series (1961-1964)[edit]

The Bank Indonesia-printed handicrafts series replaced the TDLR notes in 1961 and 1962, with denominations from Rp5 to Rp1,000 being issued. The first Rp10,000 banknote was introduced in 1964.

Native crafts/houses banknotes, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran, issued 1959, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964 – first series
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Signature Watermark Serial Note Issue date Withdrawal date
Rp5 135 × 65 mm Green and red Javanese woman doing batik Central Java traditional house Loekman Hakim (Governor), TRB Sabaroedin (Director) Banteng head 3 letters, 6 numbers "1958" 8 September 1959 13 June 1966
Rp10 Brown and blue Balinese statue carver Balinese house 11 December 1961
Rp25 150 × 75 mm Green and blue Batak Toba weaver Batak house 26 April 1962
Rp50 Orange and purple Timor spinner Timor house and cattle pen
Rp100 Red Rubber tapper Kalimantan traditional house 8 September 1959
Rp500 160 × 85 mm Red and brown Man opening coconut Minahasa house 3 letters, 5 numbers 16 January 1961 13 March 1966
Rp1,000 Violet and green Minangkabau silversmith Minangkabau house 2 May 1961
Rp5,000 170 × 95 mm Brown and green Woman with paddy Rice fields in mountain 18 October 1963 13 January 1966
Rp10,000 Red and brown 2 fishermen with fish trap Barito river Kalimantan Jusuf Muda Dalam (Governor), Hertatijanto (Director) "1964" 18 August 1964
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Due to inflation, the TDLR Rp2,500 note of "animals" design was last issued in September 1962, becoming then the top denomination. A further response to inflation came with the issue of a 1958-dated Rp5,000 (brown) note in October 1963. By August 1964, it was necessary to add a Rp10,000 note (red), and dated "1964," completing the manual workers series.

Updates to the crafts notes (1965)[edit]

In 1965, amid soaring inflation, all of the notes, with the exception of the bottom Rp5 and the Rp500 note of the handicrafts series, were revised and re-issued, some more than once.

Native crafts/houses banknotes, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran, issued 1965 – second series
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Signature Watermark Serial Note Issue date Withdrawal date
Rp10 As first series As first series As first series Soemarno, Hertatijanto As first series As first series "1963" 15 October 1964 13 June 1966
Rp25 Jusuf Muda Dalam, Hertaijanto None – overprinted Gardua Pancasila "1964" 21 May 1965
Rp50 27 April 1965
Rp100 As first series 10 March 1965
Rp100 Blue None – overprinted Gardua Pancasila 19 November 1965
Rp1,000 Red As first series As first series "1958" (As first series) 21 May 1965 13 March 1966
Rp5,000 Purple As first series plus overprinted Garuda Pancasila 19 November 1965 13 January 1966
Rp10,000 Green As first series "1964"(As first series) 29 March 1965
Rp10,000 As first series plus overprinted Garuda Pancasila 19 November 1965
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

"New rupiah" (1965-present)[edit]

First series ("Sukarno"; 1965-1967)[edit]

The hyperinflation of the early 1960s resulted in the pronouncement of the "new rupiah" supposedly worth Rp1,000 of the old rupiah.

The withdrawal of the old money meant the issue of an entirely new set of banknotes by Presidential Decree of 13 December 1965. The decree authorised Bank Indonesia to issue fractional notes for the first time (although the Rp1 and Rp2½ notes were still issued by the government itself), in denominations of Rp0.1, Rp0.5, Rp0.10, Rp0.25, and Rp0.50 showing "volunteers" (Sukarelawan), dated 1964. Because the rupiah was only devalued by about 10, rather than 1000 times, they were worthless on issue, and thus millions of notes never entered circulation.

The remaining notes all featured President Sukarno on the obverse, and various dancers on the reverse; this series was issued by 'Republik Indonesia' in Rp1 and Rp2½, dated 1964, and Bank Indonesia dated 1960, in Rp5, Rp10, Rp25, Rp50, and Rp100 were issued ('1960'-dated Bank Indonesia notes of Rp5, Rp10, and Rp100 rupiah were already circulating in Irian Barat and Riau, along with '1961'-dated 'Republik Indonesia notes of Rp1 and Rp2½ in those same places); the notes from Rp500 to Rp10,000 were deemed unnecessary due to the devaluation.

To complete the devaluation, older notes (largely worthless by this point) were withdrawn over 1965–1966.

By 1967, due to the limited nature of the devaluation, it had proved necessary to add Rp500 and Rp1,000 rupiah notes, in the same design.

Notes of the 'new rupiah' (1965 devaluation), Republik Indonesia
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Printer's mark Watermark Note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp1 120 × 60 mm Red Sukarno with sugar cane Balinese female dancer 2 letters, 6 numbers (no printer mark); 3 letters 6 numbers (otherwise) Soemarno Pertjetakan Kebajoran, P.N. Pertjetakan Kebajoran, or no mark Garuda Pancasila "1964" 13 December 1965   8 January 1968 – as Bank Indonesia. These are the last government notes in Indonesia.
Rp2½ 120 × 60 mm Blue Balinese female dancer 2 letters, 6 numbers (no printer mark); 3 letters 6 numbers (otherwise) Pertjetakan Kebajoran, or no mark  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Notes of the "new rupiah" (1965 devaluation, plus 1967 denomination additions), Bank Indonesia
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signatures Printer's mark Watermark Note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp0.01 104 × 52 mm Green Farmer wearing paddy hat Spiral patterns 3 letters, 6 numbers Governor: Jusuf Muda Dalam; Director: Hertatijianto Pertjetakan Kebajoran None "1964" 13 December 1965 Never withdrawn Worthless upon issue, never replaced as coin or note
Rp0.05 Violet Woman with peaked cap and 'Sukarelawan' (volunteer) badge 15 November 1996
Rp0.10 Blue
Rp0.25 110 × 55 mm Red Man with peaked cap and 'Sukarelawan' (volunteer) badge
Rp0.50 Purple
Rp5 135 × 67 mm Violet Sukarno, with sugar cane Female Balinese dancer 3 letters, 6 numbers Acting Governor: Soetikno Slamet; Director: Indra Kasoema Pertjetakan Kebajoran Sukarno, replaced by buffalo from 30 August 1966 "1960" 1 September 1971 13 January 1969
Rp10 140 × 70 mm Brown 2 female Balinese dancers 3 letters, 6 numbers Sukarno 15 April 1968
Rp25 146 × 73 mm Green Female Balinese dancer showing hands 3 letters, 6 numbers (Pertjetakan); 1/2/3 letters, six numbers (Thomas De La Rue) Thomas De La Rue until 25 July 1966, then Pertjetakan Kebajoran Sukarno (Thomas De La Rue); buffalo (Pertjetakan Kebajoran) 13 January 1969
Rp50 152 × 76 mm Navy Blue Hindu female Balinese dancer with 2 gamelan players Thomas De La Rue until 30 August 1966, then Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Rp100 158 × 79 mm Red-brown Batak male and female dancer 3 letters, 6 numbers Pertjetakan Kebajoran Sukarno
Rp500 164 × 82 mm Brown Javanese dancers 1/2/3 letters 4 numbers (TDLR), 3 letters six numbers (PK) Thomas De La Rue/Pertjetakan Kebajoran First Printings: Sukarno (Thomas De La Rue), buffalo/Sukarno (Pertjetakan Kebajoran); 1968 reprint Garuda (Pertjetakan Kebajoran) 20 February 1967
Rp1,000 170 × 85 mm Cyan 2 Balinese dancers Sukarno (Thomas De La Rue – first printing), buffalo (Pertjetakan Kebajoran – 1968 reprint)
Rp2,500 164 × 82 mm Blue Female dancer 1 letter 4 numbers Governor: Soemarno; Director: Roesli Saleh S. H. Thomas De La Rue   Unissued specimens
Rp5,000 Purple Female dancer  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Second series ("Sudirman"; 1968-1970)[edit]

By 1968 the Suharto New Order had been established, and Bank Indonesia, as of 1968 was given sole right to issue banknotes (including notes below 5 rupiah) as well as coins (which had previously been the issue of the central government).[10]

Hence, the new issue of Rp1 to Rp1,000 banknotes, dated 1968, were all emanating from Bank Indonesia. The notes featured the revolutionary hero General Sudirman, backed by various scenes of industry. The notes were issued in 1968 and 1969. In 1970, notes of the same theme (but a different watermark) were added in Rp5,000 and Rp10,000 denominations, thus restoring notes to the same denominations that had been circulating prior the 1965 devaluation.

Sudirman/industry notes, '1968', Bank Indonesia: Second series of notes post-devaluation, Printed by PN Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signatures Watermark Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement note
Rp1 112 × 56 mm Orange Sudirman, Coat of arms of Indonesia Woman extracting copra 3 letters, 6 numbers Radius Prawiro, Soeksmono B. Martokoesoemo Garuda Pancasila 8 January 1968 1 September 1975 Replaced with coin
Rp2½ Blue Woman holding paddy No replacement, last of denomination
Rp5 132 × 66 mm Violet Hydropower construction 13 January 1969 Replaced with coin
Rp10 Brown Oil refinery 15 April 1968
Rp25 Green Ampera Bridge, Palembang 13 January 1969
Rp50 Violet and green DC-3s inside hangar
Rp100 144 × 72 mm Red Brickworks, harbour 2 April 1988 1 October 1977
Rp500 Green and black Cotton mill 5 April 1978
Rp1,000 Black and orange Fertiliser factory 1 September 1977 1 June 1976
Rp5,000 156 × 78 mm Green Sudirman, Garuda Pancasila PT Tonasa Cement Factory Diponegoro 2 April 1970 1 July 1977 5 October 1976
Rp10,000 Red and violet Bangka Island tin mine 15 July 1976
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Diponegoro series (unissued)[edit]

A new series of notes, which now started only at Rp100 (then US$0.24), was designed with a Diponegoro theme in 1971 (but undated); however, this series was never issued, although the Rp1,000 note, with date added, was issued in 1976 (see below), and the reverse of the Rp5,000 note was also used for the 1976 Rp5,000 note, but with a new obverse design.

This aborted note series was the last in Indonesia to have a consistent theme, although new notes typically retained the same colour as old ones of the same denomination.

Diponegoro series (1971, not dated, unissued); printed by PN Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signature Serial Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement
[1] [2] Rp100 143 × 70 mm Pink Diponegoro at right, facing left Mountain scenery Diponegoro Radius Prawiro (Governor), Durmawel Achmad (Director) 2 letters, 000000 Specimen only; unissued; undated
[3] [4] Rp500 144 × 71 mm Green Diponegoro at left, facing right Rice terraces 3 letters, six numbers
[5] [6] Rp1,000 156 × 78 mm Blue Buffalo ploughing rice field
Rp5,000 158 × 79 mm Brown and red-brown Diponegoro at right, facing left 3 sailing boats 2 letters, 000000
Rp10,000 Green and red Rice farmers
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Third series (1976-1978)[edit]

Due to counterfeiting of the Sudirman notes, the Rp1,000, Rp5,000 and Rp10,000 notes were all re-designed, dated 1975, and issued in 1976. The Sudirman notes of Rp1,000 and above were withdrawn as legal tender as of 1 September 1977.[11]

Redesigns of the Rp100 and Rp500 notes followed in 1978, thereby completing the third series of notes to be issued since the 1965 devaluation.

Rupiah notes '1975' and '1977', printed by Perum Peruri[12]
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signature Serial note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement
Rp100 144 × 72 mm Pink Javan rhinoceros A Javan rhino in habitat Garuda Pancasila Rachmat Saleh (Governor), Arifin M. Siregar (Director) 3 letters, six numbers "1977" 1 October 1977 2 April 1988 1 February 1985  
Rp500 144 × 79 mm Green Rachmi Hatta with Vanda orchid Bank Indonesia building, Thamrin, Jakarta Diponegoro 5 April 1978 1 December 1982  
Rp1,000 158 × 79 mm Blue Diponegoro at left, facing right Buffalo ploughing rice field Gajah Mada Rachmat Saleh (Governor), Soeksmono. B. Martokoesoemo (Director) "1975" 1 June 1976 1 July 1980 Undated specimens exists; issued note dated '1975'
Rp5,000 Red-brown Fisherman 3 sailing boats Cut Nyak Dhien 5 October 1976 1 March 1982 Identical to unissued 'Diponegoro' note, except Diponegoro replaced with fisherman
Rp10,000 Green, brown and orange Ramayana frieze at Borobodur Batara Kala, Jago Temple General Sudirman 15 July 1976 2 January 1980 29 June 1979  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Fourth series (1979-1982)[edit]

The first note to be replaced was again the top 10,000 rupiah note (by then worth approximately US$16), in 1979. Further redesigned notes followed in all denominations except the 100 rupiah, in 1980 and 1982.

Rupiah notes '1979', '1980', '1982', printed by Perum Peruri[13]
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement
Rp500 140 × 68 mm Green Titan arum Bank Indonesia building, Kota Tua Ahmad Yani Rachmat Saleh, Durmawel Achmad 3 letters, six numbers "1982" 1 December 1982 1 May 1992 29 January 1988
Rp1,000 146 × 72 mm Blue Soetomo Sianok Canyon Hasanuddin of Gowa "1980" 1 July 1980 30 June 1987
Rp5,000 152 × 76 mm Brown Diamond cutter, Kalimantan 3 Toraja houses Dewi Sartika 1 March 1982 9 December 1986
Rp10,000 158 × 80 mm Purple Gamelan players, Central Java Prambanan temple Soetomo Rachmat Saleh, Arifin M. Siregar "1979" 29 June 1979 27 December 1985
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Fifth series (1985–1988)[edit]

The Rp100 note dating from 1977 was finally replaced in 1985; replacement notes of all denominations followed in 1985, 1987 and 1988.

Rupiah notes '1984', '1985', '1986','1987','1988', printed by Perum Peruri[14]
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement
Rp100 133 × 64 mm Pink Victoria crowned pigeon Asahan dam Garuda Pancasila Arifin M. Siregar, Sujitno Siswowidagdo 3 letters, six numbers "1984" 1 February 1985 25 September 1995 28 December 1992
Rp500 140 × 68 mm Green Javan deer Bank Indonesia building, Cirebon Ahmad Yani "1988" 29 January 1988
Rp1,000 147 × 73 mm Blue Sisingamangaraja XII Kraton Yogyakarta Hasanuddin of Gowa "1987" 30 June 1987
Rp5,000 152 × 76 mm Brown Teuku Umar Minaret of Menara Kudus Mosque Martha Christina Tiahahu "1986" 9 December 1986
Rp10,000 158 × 80 mm Purple Kartini with Prambanan temple Female university graduate, Indonesian flag Tjipto Mangunkusumo "1985" 27 December 1985
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Sixth series (1992)[edit]

28 December 1992 saw a complete overhaul of all denominations of notes for the first time since 1968. In addition, a new top denomination, Rp20,000 note was added, with a US$ value of approximately $10 at the time. This was the first new denomination of the 'new rupiah' since the Rp10,000 had been issued in April 1970 (then worth about US$26). From this issue forwards, Indonesian notes have carried in small text in the note border the year of printing; the most conspicuous date on the note is still the date of authority (e.g., "Direksi 1992").

Rupiah notes '1992' series, printed by Perum Peruri[15][16]
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement
Rp100 136 × 68 mm Pink Bugis phinisi Anak Krakatoa Ki Hajar Dewantara Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Sujitno Siswowidagdo (Director) 3 letters, six numbers 28 December 1992 30 November 2006 Last of denomination Carries imprint dates 1992–1996, 1999, 2000
Rp500 140 × 68 mm Green Orangutan East Kalimantan house Omar Said Tjokroaminoto Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Syahril Sabirin (Director) Carries imprint date 1992–1999
Rp1,000 144 × 68 mm Blue Lake Toba Stone jumping, Nias Cut Nyak Meutia Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Hendrobudiyanto (Director) 29 November 2000 Carries imprint date 1992–2000
Rp5,000 144 × 72 mm Brown Sasando Rote Tri-coloured lake, Kelimutu Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Hasudungan Tampubolon (Director) 6 November 2001 Carries imprint date 1992–2001
Rp10,000 148 × 72 mm Purple Hamengkubuwono IX, Scouts camping Borobodur Wage Rudolf Soepratman Adrianus Mooy (Governor), R. Rachmad (Director) 21 August 2000 23 January 1998 Carries imprint date 1992–1998
Rp20,000 152 × 72 mm Green Red bird-of-paradise Clove flower, map of Indonesia Ki Hajar Dewantara Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Binhadi (Director) 28 August 1995 Carries imprint dates 1992–1995
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Suharto Rp50,000 paper note (1993)[edit]

In 1993 a Rp50,000 (approx US$22) note celebrating "25 Years of Development" was issued. The design featured Suharto on the front and Soekarno-Hatta airport on the back, with a plane taking off to symbolise Indonesia's growth. The note (regular) were printed in 1993 and 1994. A polymer version intended as collectables were also issued (see Commemorative banknotes).

Rupiah paper notes Suharto '1993', Printed by Perum Peruri[17][18]
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement
Rp50,000 152 × 76 mm Blue Suharto with scenes of industrial development, slogan "25 Tahun Indonesia Membangun" (25 Years of Indonesia's Development) Garuda Indonesia Boeing 747 Aircraft taking off from Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Wage Rudolf Soepratman Adrianus Mooy (Governor), T. M. Sjakur Machmud (Director) 3 letters, 6 numbers 1 March 1993 21 August 2000 28 August 1995 Imprint 1993-1994
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Addition of security thread (1995)[edit]

1995 saw the introduction of the security thread to Indonesian banknotes, a feature on all large (Rp10,000 and above) notes of "Direksi 1995" and newer. The 1992 Rp20,000 notes and 1993 paper Rp50,000 notes were the affected notes.

Rupiah notes 1995 security thread updates, printed by Perum Peruri[18]
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement
Rp20,000 152 × 72 mm Green Red bird-of-paradise Clove flower, map of Indonesia Ki Hajar Dewantara + security foil strip J. Soedradjad Djiwandono (Governor), Heru Soepraptomo (Director) 3 letters, 6 numbers 28 August 1995 21 August 2000 19 February 1998 Imprint dates 1995–1997
Rp50,000 152 × 76 mm Blue Suharto with scenes of industrial development, slogan "25 Tahun Indonesia Membangun" (25 Years of Indonesia's Development) Garuda Indonesia Boeing 747 aircraft taking off from Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Wage Rudolf Soepratman + security foil strip J. Soedradjad Djiwandono (Governor), Boediono (Director) 1 June 1999 Imprint dates 1995–1998
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Updates to high denominations, introduction of the Rp100,000 note (1998-1999)[edit]

The Rp10,000, Rp20,000 and Rp50,000 notes were replaced in 1998 and 1999. A new polymer Rp100,000 note (by then only worth about US$10) was also added, imported from Australia. These notes, which were no longer printed following the introduction of new designs in 2004–2005, are no longer legal tender since 31 December 2008, although they remained exchangeable at Bank Indonesia offices until 30 December 2018.[19]

Rupiah notes "1998", "1999" series[20][21]
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Printer Serial Issue date note series first of denomination Withdrawal date replacement
Rp10,000 148 × 72 mm Brown-grey Tjut Njak Dhien Lake Segara Anak Wage Rudolf Soepratman; security thread J. Soedradjad Djiwandono (Governor), Mukhlis Rasyid (Deputy Governor) Perum Peruri 3 letters, 6 numbers 23 January 1998 '1998' 1964 31 December 2008 20 October 2005 Carries imprint date 1998–2005
Rp20,000 152 × 72 mm Green Ki Hadjar Dewantara, Ganesha Teacher and children in classroom Ki Hadjar Dewantara; security thread J. Soedradjad Djiwandono (Governor), Haryono (Deputy Governor) 19 February 1998 1992 29 December 2004 Carries imprint date 1998–2004
Rp50,000 Grey-green Wage Rudolf Soepratman Indonesian flag hoisting ceremony, 17 August 1997 Omar Said Tjokroaminoto; security thread Syahril Sabirin (Governor), Dono Iskandar Djojosoebroto (Deputy Governor) 1 June 1999 '1999' 1993 20 October 2005 Carries imprint dates 1999–2005
Rp100,000 151 × 65 mm Red, yellow, and blue Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, proclamation of independence Indonesian Parliament building, Jakarta Garuda Pancasila and the logo of Bank Indonesia ; security thread Syahril Sabirin (Governor), Iwan R. Prawiranata (Deputy Governor) Note Printing Australia; Note Printing Works Bank of Thailand 1 November 1999 First of denomination 29 December 2004 No imprint date; phosphorus number for security
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Current series[edit]

2000-2014 series and introduction of Rp2000[edit]

The lower denominations, Rp1,000 and Rp5,000, were updated in 2000 and 2001. While the Rp5,000 note is still being printed, the Rp1,000 note was last issued dated 2013 (a limited number of notes dated 2016 were issued later) and, while remaining in circulation, has largely been replaced by a coin of the same value. Notes of the previous lowest denominations, Rp100 and Rp500, are no longer printed, since the rupiah had fallen in value by 80% since the previous issue of these denominations in 1992.

The Rp10,000 to Rp100,000 notes were replaced in 2004 and 2005, with the Rp100,000 note reverting to a locally printed paper design, as the polymer notes proved difficult for bank machines to count; all the notes were given better anti-forgery devices. The Rp100,000 note was also given an Irisafe colour-shifting ink technology to its right; this was removed in 2011.

After several delays, following an initial announcement that the Rp2,000 note would replace the Rp1,000 note as the lowest denomination, the new denomination, Rp2,000, was finally officially released, to circulate alongside the lower denomination, on 9 July 2009.

On 20 July 2010, the 2005-issue Rp10,000 note was revised, featuring the same theme but with a colour change to better distinguish it from the Rp100,000 note. Several changes were also made to the note's security features and devices.[22][23]

On 28 October 2011, in commemoration of Youth Pledge Day, Bank Indonesia updated the Rp20,000, Rp50,000, and Rp100,000 banknotes to feature enhanced security features including rainbow printing, Omron rings and new blind codes.[24][25]

Bank Indonesia issued a revised Rp100,000 note on Independence Day, 17 August 2014. The banknotes have "Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia" ("The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia") written on the notes, replacing the name of its current issuer, Bank Indonesia. The new notes retain the images of its national figures and have more golden colors. It was purposely designed to make counterfeit harder.[26][27] The revised note carries an imprint of TE. (abbreviation of "Tahun Emisi", Issue Year) 2014 and the signatures of the then-BI governor Agus Martowardojo and the then-Indonesian Finance Minister Chatib Basri. In addition, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has officially appointed Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta as obverse of Rp100,000 banknotes, following the issuance of Presidential Decree No. 22 of 2 June 2014.[28][29]

Rupiah notes '2000', '2001','2004'[a], '2005'[b], '2009', and '2014' series, Printed by Perum Peruri[30]
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial issue note series replacememt
Rp1,000 141 × 65 mm Blue and Green Kapitan Pattimura Maitara and Tidore Islands, with fishermen on a boat Tjut Meutia Varies[c] 3 letters, 6 numbers 29 November 2000 '2000' 19 December 2016 Imprint 2000–2009, 2011-2013, and 2016
Rp2,000 Grey Pangeran Antasari of Banjar Dayak traditional dance Pangeran Antasari Varies[d] 9 July 2009 '2009' Imprint 2009–2016
Rp5,000 143 × 65 mm Brown and Green Tuanku Imam Bonjol Songket weaver, Tanah Datar Tjut Meutia Varies[e] 6 November 2001 '2001' Imprint 2001–2016
Rp10,000 145 × 65 mm Magenta Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II The traditional Limas House of Palembang, South Sumatra Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Varies[f] 20 October 2005 '2005'[g] 20 July 2010 Imprint 2005–2009
Purple Varies[h] 20 July 2010 19 December 2016 Imprint 2010–2016
Rp20,000 147 × 65 mm Green Oto Iskandar di Nata Tea plantation, West Java Oto Iskandar di Nata Varies[i] 29 December 2004 '2004'[j] 31 October 2011 Imprint 2004–2011
Varies[k] 31 October 2011 19 December 2016 Imprint 2011–2016
Rp50,000 149 × 65 mm Blue I Gusti Ngurah Rai Pura Ulun Danu Bratan, Bali I Gusti Ngurah Rai Varies[l] 20 October 2005 '2005'[m] 31 October 2011 Imprint 2005–2011
Varies[n] 31 October 2011 19 December 2016 Imprint 2011-2016
Rp100,000 151 × 65 mm Red Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, proclamation of independence Indonesian Parliament building, Jakarta, Map of Indonesia Wage Rudolf Soepratman Varies[o] 29 December 2004 '2004'[p] 31 October 2011 Imprint 2004–2011
Indonesian Parliament building, Jakarta, Map of Indonesia and with addition text of "Dewan Perwakilan Daerah" (Regional Representative Council) Varies[q] 31 October 2011 17 August 2014 Imprint 2011–2014
Varies[r] 17 August 2014 '2014' 19 December 2016 Imprint 2014–2016
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

2016 series[edit]

Bank Indonesia introduced a new series of banknotes on 19 December 2016 in denominations of Rp1,000, Rp2,000, Rp5,000, Rp10,000, Rp20,000, Rp50,000 and Rp100,000. This series features national heroes from the history of Indonesia.[44] In 2022, Bank Indonesia predicts that notes of this series will be removed from circulation in 2026.[45]

Rupiah notes '2016' series, Printed by Perum Peruri[46][47]
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note series Issue date Replacement date
Rp1,000 141 × 65 mm Yellow-Grey Tjut Meutia Tifa dance, Banda Neira, and Cocktown orchid Tjut Meutia Varies[s] 3 letters, 6 numbers '2016' 19 December 2016 17 August 2022 Imprint 2016–2021
Rp2,000 Grey Mohammad Husni Thamrin Piring dance, Sianok Canyon and Magnolia champaca Pangeran Antasari
Rp5,000 143 × 65 mm Brown Idham Chalid Gambyong dance, Mount Bromo and Tuberose Tjut Meutia
Rp10,000 145 × 65 mm Purple Frans Kaisiepo Pakarena dance, Wakatobi National Park and Magnolia vrieseana Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II
Rp20,000 147 × 65 mm Green G.S.S.J. Ratulangi Gong dance, Derawan Islands and Coelogyne pandurata Otto Iskandar Di Nata
Rp50,000 149 × 65 mm Blue Djuanda Kartawidjaja Legong dance, Komodo National Park and Plumeria I Gusti Ngurah Rai
Rp100,000 151 × 65 mm Red Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta Topeng Betawi dance, Raja Ampat Islands and Moon orchid Wage Rudolf Soepratman
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

2022 series[edit]

Bank Indonesia introduced a new series of banknotes on 18 August 2022. Officially, they were retroactively issued as legal tender on 17 August 2022 to commemorate Indonesia's 77th year of independence. Similar to the 2016 series, the Indonesian dances and national heroes are still featured on the notes, with some notable changes.[49][50]

Rupiah notes '2022' series, Printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note series Issue date
Rp1,000 121 × 65 mm Yellow, Grey Tjut Meutia Tifa dance, Banda Neira, and Cocktown orchid Tjut Meutia Perry Warjiyo (Governor) — Sri Mulyani Indrawati (Minister of Finance) 3 letters, 6 numbers '2022' 17 August 2022 Imprint 2022–present
Rp2,000 126 × 65 mm Grey Mohammad Husni Thamrin Piring dance, Sianok Canyon and Magnolia champaca Mohammad Husni Thamrin
Rp5,000 131 × 65 mm Brown, Orange Idham Chalid Gambyong dance, Mount Bromo and Tuberose Idham Chalid
Rp10,000 136 × 65 mm Purple Frans Kaisiepo Pakarena dance, Wakatobi National Park and Magnolia vrieseana Frans Kaisiepo
Rp20,000 141 × 65 mm Green G.S.S.J. Ratulangi Gong dance, Derawan Islands and Coelogyne pandurata G.S.S.J. Ratulangi
Rp50,000 146 × 65 mm Blue Djuanda Kartawidjaja Legong dance, Komodo National Park and Plumeria Djuanda Kartawidjaja
Rp100,000 151 × 65 mm Red Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta Topeng Betawi dance, Raja Ampat Islands and Moon orchid Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Commemorative banknotes[edit]

Suharto "25 years of development" commemorative Rp50,000 polymer note (1993)[edit]

In 1993, a polymer Rp50,000 rupiah (approximately US$22) note celebrating "25 Years of Development" with the hologram and phrase "Penerbitan Khusus" (Special Issue) was issued. Only five million notes are printed and each were packed in a presentation pack explaining the 25-year growth plan since 1969. These notes were priced at Rp100,000 upon release, which was double the face value. The design featured Suharto on the front and Soekarno-Hatta airport on the back, with a plane taking off to symbolise Indonesia's growth. However, it is believed that due to poor sales, some of the polymer notes, minus the folder, were issued as regularly circulating money. A paper version (regular note) of similar design was printed in 1993 and 1994.[18]

Rupiah commemorative polymer notes Suharto '1993', Printed by Note Printing Australia[17]
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial Issue date Withdrawal date Replacement
Rp50,000 152 × 76 mm Blue Suharto with scenes of industrial development, slogan "25 Tahun Indonesia Membangun" (25 years of Indonesia's development) Garuda Indonesia Boeing 747 aircraft taking off from Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Suharto hologram, Bank Indonesia watermark Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Hasudungan Tampubolon (Director) 3 letters, 6 numbers 1 March 1993 21 August 2000 No replacement, last of denomination Polymer note
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

75th anniversary of independence Rp75,000 note (2020)[edit]

Bank Indonesia officially introduced a new commemorative banknote on 17 August 2020 to commemorate the 75th anniversary of Indonesia's declaration of independence. It was the first commemorative money to independence anniversary in banknotes, after before issued in coins. A total of 75 million notes were printed. They were made available to Indonesian citizens over the age of 17, who could purchase a maximum of one banknote by registering online and collecting it at one of the 45 regional Bank Indonesia branches. Due to the high demand, banknotes were subsequently offered for sale online for prices up to Rp8.8 million, more than 117 times its face value. Following rumors that the notes were only merchandise, and not legal tender, the central bank confirmed they could be used for payment transactions. The design of the note also attracted attention, and Bank Indonesia was obliged to deny that one of the children pictured on the back was wearing a traditional costume from China.[51][52][53][54][55][56]

Rupiah commemorative notes 75th Anniversary of Republic of Indonesia '2020'
Image Value Dimension Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note series issue
Rp75,000 151 x 65 mm Red and white Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta with additional picture of flag hoisting ceremony during declaration of independence, a Jakarta MRT 1000 series trainset, Trans-Java Toll Road, and Youtefa Bridge Children wearing various traditional clothing in Indonesia with picture of Telkom-4 (aka Merah Putih) satellite above Indonesia Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta Sri Mulyani Indrawati (Finance Minister), Perry Warjiyo (Governor) 3 letters, 6 numbers '2020' 17 August 2020 Limited edition
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Anti-counterfeit warnings[edit]

Until 1998, rupiah banknotes featured a line of text that served as an anti-counterfeit warning.

  • 1945-1947: Barangsiapa yang meniru atau memalsu uang kertas negara, atau dengan sengaja mengedarkan, menyimpan ataupun memasukkan kedaerah Republik Indonesia uang kertas tiruan atau palsu, dapat dihukum menurut Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Pidana pasal 244, 245 dan 249. (Anyone who imitates or counterfeits banknotes of the state, or deliberately circulates, stores or imports counterfeit banknotes to the territory of the Republic of Indonesia, can be punished according to the Criminal Code articles 244, 245 and 249.)
  • 1947 (on Dutch-issued banknotes): Di dalam pasal 244, 245 dan 249 dari Kitab Undang-undang Hukuman ditetapkan hukuman untuk yang meniru atau memalsukan uang kertas dan untuk yang mengeluarkan dengan sengaja, menyimpan atau memasukkan uang kertas palsu atau yang dijadikan palsu ke Hindia Belanda. (In articles 244, 245 and 249 of the Criminal Code, penalties are stipulated for those who imitate or falsify banknotes and for those who deliberately issue, store or import counterfeit banknotes or those made to be counterfeit into the Dutch East Indies.)
  • 1947-1979: Barangsiapa meniru atau memalsukan uang kertas dan barangsiapa mengeluarkan dengan sengaja atau menyimpan uang kertas tiruan atau uang kertas yang dipalsukan akan dituntut dimuka hakim. (Anyone who imitates or falsifies banknotes and whoever issues or keeps imitation or falsified banknotes on purpose will be prosecuted according to law.) In the early years of its implementation, this warning was repeated multiple times in microprint, mimicking the technique used on Dutch guilder banknotes.
  • 1979-1998: Barangsiapa meniru, memalsukan uang kertas dan/atau dengan sengaja menyimpan serta mengedarkan uang kertas tiruan atau uang kertas palsu diancam dengan hukuman penjara. (Anyone who imitates, falsifies banknotes and/or deliberately stores and distributes imitation or counterfeit banknotes will be threatened with imprisonment.)

Security features[edit]

Collection of Rp50,000 notes clearly displaying the security threads.
  • The banknotes are made of cotton fibres, because they are more flexible and not easily ripped.[57] However, the actual material used is the abacá fibre, which is naturally plentiful in Indonesia (especially on the Talaud Islands)[58] and is believed to increase the durability of the banknotes. In 2014, Bank Indonesia plan to use these materials, but in 2016 edition, they prefer to print using paper which was also used to print banknotes from previous editions.[59][60]
  • The minimum security features for naked eyes are watermarks, electrotypes and security threads with colour fibres. In addition to this, extra features may be included, such as holograms, Irisafe, iridescent stripes, clear windows, metameric windows and gold patches.
    • Watermark and electrotype are made by controlling the gap of density of the fibres which create certain images for the banknotes. This is done to raise the quality of the notes from the aesthetic view.
    • Security threads are put in the middle of the note's materials so horizontal and vertical lines are shown from top to bottom. The threads also can be made with many variations such as the materials, size, colour and design.
  • The 2004 and 2005 note series of Rp10,000, Rp20,000, Rp50,000 and Rp100,000 rupiah, which was revised in 2010 and 2011, introduced several new security features: use of EURion constellation rings, rainbow printing designed to change colour when viewed from different angles, and tactile features for blind people and those with visual difficulties to recognise the different denominations stated on the notes.[61][62]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ including revised versions which was issued in 2011.
  2. ^ including revised versions which was issued in 2010 and 2011.
  3. ^
  4. ^
    • 2009: Miranda Goeltom (Senior Deputy Governor) — Budi Rochadi (Deputy Governor)
    • 2010–2013: Darmin Nasution (Governor) — Budi Rochadi (Deputy Governor)
    • 2014–2016: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Mirza Adityaswara (Deputy Governor)[33][32]
  5. ^
    • 2001–2008: Syahril Sabirin (Governor) — Miranda Goeltom (Deputy Governor)
    • 2009: Boediono (Governor) — Ardhayadi Mitroatmodjo (Deputy Governor)
    • 2010–2013: Darmin Nasution (Governor) — Ardhayadi Mitroatmodjo (Deputy Governor)
    • 2013: Darmin Nasution (Governor) — Halim Alamsyah (Deputy Governor)
    • 2014–2016: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Hendar (Deputy Governor)
    • 2016: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Erwin Rijanto (Deputy Governor)[34][32]
  6. ^
  7. ^ including revised version which was issued in 2010.
  8. ^
    • 2010: Darmin Nasution (Senior Deputy Governor) — Muliaman D. Hadad (Deputy Governor)
    • 2011–2013: Darmin Nasution (Governor) — Muliaman D. Hadad (Deputy Governor)
    • 2013: Darmin Nasution (Governor) — Sarwono (Deputy Governor)
    • 2014–2016: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Perry Warjiyo (Deputy Governor)
    • 2016: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Hendar (Deputy Governor)[36][32]
  9. ^
  10. ^ including revised version which was issued in 2011.
  11. ^
    • 2011–2013: Darmin Nasution (Governor) — Halim Alamsyah (Deputy Governor)
    • 2014–2015: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Ronald Wass (Deputy Governor)
    • 2016: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Perry Warjiyo (Deputy Governor)
    • 2016: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Ardhayadi Mitroatmodjo (Deputy Governor)[38][32]
  12. ^
  13. ^ including revised version which was issued in 2011.
  14. ^
    • 2011–2013: Darmin Nasution (Governor) — Hartati Sarwono (Deputy Governor)
    • 2014–2016: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Halim Alamsyah (Deputy Governor)
    • 2016: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Ardhayadi Mitroatmodjo (Deputy Governor)[40][32]
  15. ^
  16. ^ including revised version which was issued in 2011.
  17. ^
    • 2011–2013: Darmin Nasution (Governor) — Ardhayadi Mitroatmodjo (Deputy Governor)
    • 2013: Darmin Nasution (Governor) — Ronald Wass (Deputy Governor)
    • 2014: Agus Martowardojo (Governor) — Mirza Adityaswara (Deputy Governor)[42][32]
  18. ^
  19. ^

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  • Cuhaj, George S. (2010). Paper Money General Issues 1368–1960 (13 ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 978-1-4402-1293-2.