2012 Catalan regional election

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2012 Catalan regional election

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All 135 seats in the Parliament of Catalonia
68 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered5,413,868 0.9%
Turnout3,668,310 (67.8%)
9.0 pp
  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Artur Mas Oriol Junqueras Pere Navarro
Party CiU ERC–CatSí PSC–PSOE
Leader since 7 January 2002 17 September 2011 17 December 2011
Leader's seat Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona
Last election 62 seats, 38.4% 10 seats, 7.0% 28 seats, 18.4%
Seats won 50 21 20
Seat change 12 11 8
Popular vote 1,116,259 498,124 524,707
Percentage 30.7% 13.7% 14.4%
Swing 7.7 pp 6.7 pp 4.0 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
 
Leader Alicia Sánchez-Camacho Joan Herrera Albert Rivera
Party PP ICV–EUiA C's
Leader since 6 July 2008 23 November 2008 9 July 2006
Leader's seat Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona
Last election 18 seats, 12.4% 10 seats, 7.4% 3 seats, 3.4%
Seats won 19 13 9
Seat change 1 3 6
Popular vote 471,681 359,705 274,925
Percentage 13.0% 9.9% 7.6%
Swing 0.6 pp 2.5 pp 4.2 pp

  Seventh party
 
Leader David Fernàndez
Party CUP
Leader since 13 October 2012
Leader's seat Barcelona
Last election Did not contest
Seats won 3
Seat change 3
Popular vote 126,435
Percentage 3.5%
Swing New party

Constituency results map for the Parliament of Catalonia

President before election

Artur Mas
CiU

Elected President

Artur Mas
CiU

The 2012 Catalan regional election was held on Sunday, 25 November 2012, to elect the 10th Parliament of the autonomous community of Catalonia. All 135 seats in the Parliament were up for election. It was a snap election, announced on 25 September by President Artur Mas following the pro-independence demonstration in Barcelona on 11 September—the National Day of Catalonia—and the failed talks between President Mas and Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy to give greater fiscal autonomy to Catalonia.[1][2]

Despite Artur Mas campaigning to win an absolute majority of seats, Convergence and Union (CiU) suffered an electoral setback which had gone largely unnoticed by opinion polls. The Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) also fared poorly, obtaining fewer seats than pro-independence Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and ending up as the third parliamentary force overall. In turn, ERC regained much of the strength it had loss in the 2010 election and became the main parliamentary opposition party for the first time. The People's Party (PP) and Citizens (C's) benefitted from the electoral polarization between the pro-independence and anti-independence blocs, scoring their best results until then, with 19 and 9 seats, respectively. The Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) also entered the Parliament for the first time.[3]

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

The Parliament of Catalonia was the devolved, unicameral legislature of the autonomous community of Catalonia, having legislative power in regional matters as defined by the Spanish Constitution and the Catalan Statute of Autonomy, as well as the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a regional president.[4] As a result of no regional electoral law having been approved since the re-establishment of Catalan autonomy, the electoral procedure came regulated under Transitory Provision Fourth of the 1979 Statute, supplemented by the provisions within the national electoral law.[a] Voting for the Parliament was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over 18 years of age, registered in Catalonia and in full enjoyment of their political rights. Amendments to the electoral law in 2011 required for Catalans abroad to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[5]

The 135 members of the Parliament of Catalonia were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with an electoral threshold of three percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Barcelona, Girona, Lleida and Tarragona, with each being allocated a fixed number of seats:[4][6]

Seats Constituencies
85 Barcelona
18 Tarragona
17 Girona
15 Lleida

The use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude.[7]

Election date[edit]

The term of the Parliament of Catalonia expired four years after the date of its previous election, unless it was dissolved earlier. The regional president was required to call an election fifteen days prior to the date of expiry of parliament, with election day taking place within from forty to sixty days after the call. The previous election was held on 28 November 2010, which meant that the legislature's term would have expired on 28 November 2014. The election was required to be called no later than 13 November 2014, with it taking place up to the sixtieth day from the call, setting the latest possible election date for the Parliament on Monday, 12 January 2015.[4]

The president had the prerogative to dissolve the Parliament of Catalonia and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since a previous one under this procedure. In the event of an investiture process failing to elect a regional president within a two-month period from the first ballot, the Parliament was to be automatically dissolved and a fresh election called.[4]

Background[edit]

In the 2010 election, Convergence and Union (CiU) was returned to power after 7 years in opposition, as a result of the electoral collapse of all three parties comprising the "Catalan tripartite" government (Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV). Newly-elected Catalan president Artur Mas was able to govern comfortably thanks to his party's large parliamentary representation allowing for punctual support of several parties on different issues, in what was known as a policy of "variable geometry".[8][9] In 2011, CiU signed several agreements with the People's Party (PP) in order to pass the 2011 and 2012 budgets, as well as for the approval of several spending cuts. In spite of this, the relationship between both parties quickly deteriorated after the 2011 general election, as a result of Mas asking new Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy for greater fiscal autonomy for Catalonia.[10][11]

On 11 September 2012, a massive pro-independence demonstration marked the Catalan political agenda and re-opened the debate about the right to hold a referendum on the independence of Catalonia,[12][13][14] as well as the debate about the feasibility of an independent Catalan state and its integration into the European Union. On 25 September 2012, President Artur Mas announced a snap regional election to be held on 25 November and argued, referring to the demonstration, that "this election will not be held to help a party to perpetuate itself in power. It will be held so that the whole of the Catalan population decides democratically and peacefully what will their future be as a nation."[15] President Mas signed the decree to officially call the Catalan election on 1 October.[16] Mas' move was criticized as an attempt to try to funnel the popular support for independence seen in the September demonstration into an absolute majority of seats in the election.[17]

Parliamentary composition[edit]

The Parliament of Catalonia was officially dissolved on 2 October 2012, after the publication of the dissolution decree in the Official Journal of the Government of Catalonia.[18] The table below shows the composition of the parliamentary groups in the chamber at the time of dissolution.[19][20][21]

Parliamentary composition in October 2012[22]
Groups Parties Legislators
Seats Total
Convergence and Union's Parliamentary Group CDC 45 62
UDC 17
Socialist Parliamentary Group PSC 28 28
People's Party of Catalonia's Parliamentary Group PP 18 18
Initiative for Catalonia Greens–United and
Alternative Left's Parliamentary Group
ICV 8 10
EUiA 2
Republican Left of Catalonia's Parliamentary Group ERC 10 10
Mixed Group SI 3 6
Cs 3
Non-Inscrits DCat 1[b] 1

Parties and candidates[edit]

The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election call, whereas groupings of electors needed to secure the signature of at least one percent of the electorate in the constituencies for which they sought election, disallowing electors from signing for more than one list of candidates.[24]

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Candidacy Parties and
alliances
Leading candidate Ideology Previous result Gov. Ref.
Votes (%) Seats
CiU Artur Mas Catalan nationalism
Centrism
38.43% 62 checkY [25]
PSC–PSOE
List
Pere Navarro Social democracy 18.38% 28 ☒N [26]
PP
List
Alicia Sánchez-Camacho Conservatism
Christian democracy
12.37% 18 ☒N [27]
ICV–EUiA Joan Herrera Regionalism
Eco-socialism
Green politics
7.37% 10 ☒N [28]
ERC–CatSí Oriol Junqueras Catalan independence
Left-wing nationalism
Social democracy
7.00% 10 ☒N [29]
[30]
C's Albert Rivera Social liberalism 3.39% 3 ☒N [31]
SI Alfons López Tena Catalan independence 3.29% 4 ☒N [32]
CUP David Fernàndez Catalan independence
Anti-capitalism
Socialism
New party ☒N [33]

Opinion polls[edit]

The tables below list opinion polling results in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages. The "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a poll.

Graphical summary[edit]

Local regression trend line of poll results from 28 November 2010 to 25 November 2012, with each line corresponding to a political party.

Voting intention estimates[edit]

The table below lists weighted voting intention estimates. Refusals are generally excluded from the party vote percentages, while question wording and the treatment of "don't know" responses and those not intending to vote may vary between polling organisations. When available, seat projections determined by the polling organisations are displayed below (or in place of) the percentages in a smaller font; 68 seats were required for an absolute majority in the Parliament of Catalonia.

Color key:

  Poll conducted after legal ban on opinion polls   Exit poll

Results[edit]

Overall[edit]

Summary of the 25 November 2012 Parliament of Catalonia election results
Parties and alliances Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
Convergence and Union (CiU) 1,116,259 30.71 –7.72 50 –12
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC–PSOE) 524,707 14.43 –3.95 20 –8
Republican Left of Catalonia–Catalonia Yes (ERC–CatSí) 498,124 13.70 +6.70 21 +11
People's Party (PP) 471,681 12.98 +0.61 19 +1
Initiative for Catalonia Greens–United and Alternative Left (ICV–EUiA) 359,705 9.90 +2.53 13 +3
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's) 275,007 7.57 +4.18 9 +6
Popular Unity Candidacy–Left Alternative (CUP) 126,435 3.48 New 3 +3
Platform for Catalonia (PxC) 60,107 1.65 –0.75 0 ±0
Catalan Solidarity for Independence (SI) 46,838 1.29 –2.00 0 –4
Blank Seats (EB) 28,288 0.78 +0.18 0 ±0
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA) 20,861 0.57 +0.12 0 ±0
Pirates of Catalonia (Pirata.cat) 18,219 0.50 +0.29 0 ±0
Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) 14,614 0.40 +0.23 0 ±0
Hartos.org (Hartos.org) 11,702 0.32 New 0 ±0
Democratic Way (VD) 5,984 0.16 New 0 ±0
Communist Unification of Spain (UCE) 2,582 0.07 +0.04 0 ±0
Republican Left (IR) 826 0.02 –0.03 0 ±0
Socialists and Republicans (SyR) 333 0.01 New 0 ±0
Blank ballots 52,898 1.46 –1.47
Total 3,635,170 135 ±0
Valid votes 3,635,170 99.10 –0.19
Invalid votes 33,140 0.90 +0.19
Votes cast / turnout 3,668,310 67.76 +8.98
Abstentions 1,745,558 32.24 –8.98
Registered voters 5,413,868
Sources[19][34][35]
Popular vote
CiU
30.71%
PSC–PSOE
14.43%
ERC–CatSí
13.70%
PP
12.98%
ICV–EUiA
9.90%
C's
7.57%
CUP
3.48%
PxC
1.65%
SI
1.29%
Others
2.84%
Blank ballots
1.46%
Seats
CiU
37.04%
ERC–CatSí
15.56%
PSC–PSOE
14.81%
PP
14.07%
ICV–EUiA
9.63%
C's
6.67%
CUP
2.22%

Distribution by constituency[edit]

Constituency CiU PSC ERC PP ICV–EUiA C's CUP
% S % S % S % S % S % S % S
Barcelona 28.1 26 15.4 14 12.7 12 13.3 12 11.1 10 8.4 8 3.4 3
Girona 43.0 9 10.1 2 17.8 3 9.6 2 5.9 1 3.6 4.2
Lleida 43.1 8 10.4 1 17.4 3 11.3 2 5.4 1 3.3 3.0
Tarragona 31.7 7 13.6 3 15.1 3 15.0 3 6.9 1 7.3 1 3.6
Total 30.7 50 14.4 20 13.7 21 13.0 19 9.9 13 7.6 9 3.5 3
Sources[19][35]

Aftermath[edit]

Investiture
Artur Mas (CiU)
Ballot → 21 December 2012
Required majority → 68 out of 135 checkY
Yes
71 / 135
No
63 / 135
Abstentions
0 / 135
Absentees
  • PP (1)
1 / 135
Sources[19]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Transitory Provision Second of the 2006 Statute maintained the validity of the electoral regulations within the 1979 Statute, of application for as long as a specific law regulating the procedures for elections to the Parliament of Catalonia was not approved.
  2. ^ Joan Laporta, former SI legislator.[23]

References[edit]

Opinion poll sources
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  12. ^ "CiU, lejos de la mayoría absoluta". El País (in Spanish). 17 November 2012.
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  32. ^ "El baròmetre de Catalunya, al complet". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Catalan). 2 October 2012.
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  34. ^ "Una enquesta de Telecinco indica que un 51% de catalans diria 'sí' a la independència i només un 18,6% triaria el 'no'". Ara (in Catalan). 15 September 2012.
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  38. ^ "CiU fa evident el seu desgast però l'alternativa segueix òrfena". Ara (in Catalan). 23 July 2012.
  39. ^ "Baròmetre d'Opinió Política 27. 2a onada 2012" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). 27 June 2012.
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  41. ^ "CiU resiste mientras el PP retrocede y los socialistas se estancan a la baja". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 10 June 2012.
  42. ^ "Los recortes y las alianzas con el PPC erosionan la pujanza de CiU". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 13 May 2012.
  43. ^ "Voto estimado a partir del sondeo" (PDF). El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 13 May 2012.
  44. ^ "Baròmetre d'Opinió Política 26. 1a onada 2012" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). 2 March 2012.
  45. ^ "Catalunya mantiene la confianza en Mas para salir de la crisis". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 27 January 2012.
  46. ^ "Voto estimado a partir del sondeo" (PDF). El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 27 January 2012.
  47. ^ "CiU sale indemne de los recortes y mantiene intacto su apoyo electoral". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2 January 2012.
  48. ^ "Catalunya mantiene la confianza en Mas para salir de la crisis". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 27 June 2011.
  49. ^ "Baròmetre d'Opinió Política 24. 2a onada 2011" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). 29 June 2011.
  50. ^ "Proyección electoral. Barómetro de junio de 2011" (PDF). Feedback (in Spanish). 30 June 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011.
  51. ^ "Baròmetre d'Opinió Política 23. 1a onada 2011" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). 25 February 2011.
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Other
  1. ^ "Mas adelanta elecciones al 25-N "para abrir una nueva etapa"". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 25 September 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  2. ^ "Spain's Catalonia region to hold early elections on Nov 25". Reuters. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  3. ^ "Elecciones catalanas 2012: Batacazo de Artur Mas al perder CiU 12 diputados y quedarse muy lejos de la absoluta". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 26 November 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d "Ley Orgánica 6/2006, de 19 de julio, de reforma del Estatuto de Autonomía de Cataluña". Organic Law No. 6 of 19 July 2006 (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  5. ^ Reig Pellicer, Naiara (16 December 2015). "Spanish elections: Begging for the right to vote". cafebabel.co.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  6. ^ "Ley Orgánica 4/1979, de 18 de diciembre, de Estatuto de Autonomía de Cataluña". Organic Law No. 4 of 18 December 1979 (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  7. ^ Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  8. ^ "PSC, PP y ERC critican la geometría variable de un Mas que defiende los "grandes consensos"". El Economista (in Spanish). 6 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Sánchez-Camacho, a Mas: 'La geometría variable no siempre le saldrá bien'". El Mundo (in Spanish). 18 January 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  10. ^ "Mas y Sánchez-Camacho sellan el pacto CiU-PP para los presupuestos". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 11 June 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  11. ^ "CiU y PP vuelven a aliarse para mantener los recortes sanitarios". El País (in Spanish). 20 October 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  12. ^ "Los partidos catalanes valoran la manifestación independentista". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 12 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  13. ^ "El independentismo marca la agenda política en un otoño crítico para el Estado español". Gara (in Spanish). 23 September 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  14. ^ "CiU, ICV-EUiA, ERC y SI negocian una resolución por la autodeterminación". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 24 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  15. ^ "Mas pone rumbo a la autodeterminación". El País (in Spanish). 24 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  16. ^ "Mas: "Ningú no pot utilitzar les armes contra la voluntat d'un poble"". Nació Digital (in Catalan). 1 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  17. ^ "Elecciones catalanas: Mas pide una mayoría absoluta como la del SNP escocés para la consulta". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 19 November 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  18. ^ "Decreto 104/2012, de 1 de octubre, de convocatoria de elecciones al Parlamento de Cataluña y de su disolución" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish) (237): 69881. 2 October 2012. ISSN 0212-033X.
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  20. ^ "Parlament de Catalunya: grups parlamentaris (1980 - ...)". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  21. ^ "Diputats del Parlament de Catalunya (1932 - 2021)". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  22. ^ "IX legislatura". Parliament of Catalonia (in Catalan). Retrieved 14 July 2020.
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  26. ^ "Pere Navarro, elegido candidato del PSC para las elecciones del 25 de noviembre" (in Spanish). RTVE. 30 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  27. ^ "Rajoy: "Sánchez-Camacho representa la certidumbre que necesita Cataluña"". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 25 October 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  28. ^ "ICV proclama a Joan Herrera candidato a la Generalitat catalana" (in Spanish). RTVE. 13 October 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
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  31. ^ "Albert Rivera, un candidato joven con ganas de cambio" (in Spanish). Antena 3. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  32. ^ "SI proclama candidato a Tena, que aspira a una Cataluña sin "oligarquía española"". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 14 October 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  33. ^ "La CUP decide presentarse a las elecciones al Parlament". El País (in Spanish). 13 October 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  34. ^ "Electoral results. Parliament of Catalonia election 2012". gencat.cat (in Catalan). Government of Catalonia. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  35. ^ a b "Parliament of Catalonia election results, 25 November 2012" (PDF). www.juntaelectoralcentral.es (in Spanish). Central Electoral Commission. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2017.