1964 Illinois House of Representatives election

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1964 Illinois House of Representatives election

← 1962 November 3, 1964 (1964-11-03) 1966 →

All 177 seats in the Illinois House of Representatives
89 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
Leader John Touhy John W. Lewis Jr.
Party Democratic Republican
Last election 87[p 1] 90[p 1]
Seats won 118 59
Seat change Increase31 Decrease31
Popular vote 273,638,326[a] 252,085,214[a]
Percentage 52.05% 47.95%

Map showing the composite partisan vote in the 1964 Illinois House of Representatives election in each county
Composite vote by county

Speaker before election

John W. Lewis Jr.

Elected Speaker

John Touhy

The U.S. state of Illinois held an election on November 3, 1964, for all 177 members of the state's House of Representatives for the 74th Illinois General Assembly, alongside other state and federal elections. Due to the state's failure to redistrict, all of the seats were elected at-large, with voters choosing up to 177 candidates to support. Each party was only allowed to nominate 118 candidates. All 118 Democratic candidates won, flipping control of the chamber to Democrats with a two-thirds supermajority.

Since 1901, the state had failed to conduct legislative redistricting until 1954, at which point a constitutional amendment to force regular redistricting of the House was passed. Under its provisions, if the legislature and a backup redistricting commission failed to enact a map, an election would be held at-large. For the 1960 redistricting cycle, the state's governor was Democrat Otto Kerner Jr., while both chambers of the legislature were controlled by Republicans. The legislature passed a map along partisan lines which was vetoed by Kerner, and the commission faced similar partisan deadlock. Following a ruling by the Supreme Court of Illinois, an at-large election was held.

The ballot for the election was 33 inches (84 cm) long. Both parties nominated their candidates at party conventions, which were made up of delegates elected on the old legislative lines. Candidates did little campaigning outside of their home regions. Due to straight-ticket voting and the coattails of Lyndon B. Johnson in the concurrent presidential election, every Democrat was elected, receiving more votes than every Republican. The Republicans elected were mainly those endorsed by Chicago-area newspapers.

Reactions to the election were mixed. Politicians in both political parties received significant criticism for their failure to redistrict. Some pundits predicted significant voter confusion, and a high number of undervotes, but this did not happen. The legislature elected in 1964 pushed for governmental reform, starting the process that eventually led to the 1970 rewrite of the Constitution of Illinois. This election is the only time a state legislature has been elected at-large in the United States.


Constitutional procedure[edit]

Prior to the 1960s, Illinois had redistricted its House of Representatives only once since 1901. While the Constitution of Illinois stated that the legislature was required to redistrict the state after each United States census, it did not provide any method of enforcement if the legislature did not. Population shifts in the state had resulted in Chicago having a higher percentage of the state's population, and downstate legislators did not want their region to lose influence. Therefore, starting in the cycle after the 1910 United States census, legislators chose not to redistrict the state and the courts chose not to intervene to force redistricting.[r 1]: 291–292  A constitutional convention, approved by voters in 1918, aimed to deal with the issue,[r 2]: 443  but voters rejected its proposed constitution in 1922.[r 1]: 291–292  The 1901 legislative map had 51 districts, with 19 located in Cook County, which contains Chicago and many of its suburbs.[r 1]: 291 [b]

As the population of Chicago and Cook County grew, the level of malapportionment continued to increase. In the 1930 United States census, Cook County contained a majority of the state's population, but it continued to contain only 37.3% of the state's legislative districts.[r 1]: 294  Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, residents of the Chicago area, most notably John B. Fergus and John W. Keogh, argued before both state and federal courts in unsuccessful attempts to force redistricting.[r 1]: 292–294  In the 1930s, there were various efforts supported by governors Louis L. Emmerson and Henry Horner to allow Cook County proportional representation in either the Illinois House of Representatives or the Illinois Senate, while limiting its representation in the other, but these proposals died due to strong bipartisan opposition from downstate politicians.[r 1]: 294–295 

By 1953, William Stratton, the newly elected governor of Illinois, viewed redistricting as a priority amidst increasing public pressure over malapportionment. Through a number of compromises, he managed to convince the legislature to pass a constitutional amendment to establish new redistricting procedures. The amendment allotted the 58 districts of the Illinois Senate into three areas: 18 to Chicago, 6 to Cook County, and 34 to downstate. The amendment, written to keep the Senate in downstate control, did not provide for periodic reapportionment of the Senate, intending to lock in the districts drawn in 1954 indefinitely, but it did provide that for the House's 59 districts, requiring redistricting after every decennial U.S. census. Initially, 23 districts would be assigned to Chicago, 7 to suburban Cook County, and 29 to downstate.[r 1]: 296–297  To ensure regular reapportionment, the constitution contained two separate procedures in case the legislature failed to redistrict. First, redistricting would be done by a ten-member commission, with five members appointed from each political party by the governor. If that commission failed to create districts after four months, an at-large election would be held.[r 1]: 297 

Opposition to the amendment was disorganized, while supporters included many state politicians and newspapers. The new redistricting process was approved by voters in a 1954 referendum with about 80% of the vote.[r 1]: 297–298  Following the passage of the amendment, new districts were drawn in 1955. At this time, both chambers were Republican-controlled, as was the governorship, leading to a relatively non-controversial redistricting cycle. Each chamber created a map for their own chamber and passed the map that the other chamber created, with the maps being signed by Stratton. The map used for the House of Representatives was fairly apportioned, while the Senate's map still retained significant malapportionment. However, the maps were overall considered a significant improvement.[r 1]: 298 

1960 redistricting cycle[edit]

Following the 1962 elections, Republicans controlled both chambers of the legislature, albeit with a one-seat majority in the House. Governor Otto Kerner Jr., however, was a Democrat, resulting in a divided government. Redistricting for the House was required to take place in 1963, in preparation for the 1964 elections.[n 1][r 3]: 380  In data from the 1960 census, the state's population had shifted towards suburbs of Chicago, particularly in Cook County, Lake County, and DuPage County. Using population-based apportionment, two districts would be shifted from Chicago to the suburbs, and two more from southern Illinois to northeastern Illinois.[r 1]: 298  On April 23, 1963, Republicans in the legislature introduced a plan to that effect. Democrats responded on the same day with a plan to instead have districts that would include parts of both Chicago and its suburbs, allowing the city to have control of 23 districts, arguing that this was fair given Chicago's under-representation in the Senate.[r 1]: 299 

Democrats received no Republican support for their redistricting plan, while Republicans failed to pass their plan over southern Illinois lawmakers in their caucus, who objected to the plan's proposed removal of two districts from their area. As a compromise, Republicans passed a plan that would only remove one district from southern Illinois, at the expense of a district planned for Lake County.[r 1]: 299  However, this bill was vetoed by Kerner on July 1, as he deemed it "unfair".[r 1]: 299 [n 1] Kerner had previously promised to veto any partisan redistricting plan, and his veto message referred to the deliberate under-representation of Republican areas (which occurred as a result of the compromises made to appease downstate lawmakers). Kerner's veto was challenged at the Supreme Court of Illinois, where it was upheld. The failure of the legislature to redistrict caused the responsibility to fall to the backup commission.[r 1]: 299 

Special commission deadlock[edit]

Each party's state central committee nominated ten candidates for the redistricting commission. Kerner appointed five from each party on August 14, 1963.[r 1]: 299  The five Democrats appointed were George Dunne, finance chairman (and future president) of the Cook County Board of Commissioners; Ivan Elliott, former Illinois Attorney General; Alvin Fields, mayor of East St. Louis; Daniel Pierce, a member of the Democratic state central committee; and James Ronan, the chairman of the Democratic state central committee. The five Republicans appointed were Edward Jenison, a former U.S. representative; David Hunter, a former state legislator; Michael J. Connolly, the Republican leader in Chicago's 5th Ward; Eldon Martin, an attorney from Wilmette; and Fred G. Gurley, former president of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway.[n 2] Dunne served as the Democratic spokesman on the commission, while Gurley served as the Republican spokesman.[n 3] Kerner avoided appointing some of the more prominent politicians whom parties nominated for the commission: he did not appoint former governor Stratton, nominated by Republicans, and did not appoint Paul Powell, the Democratic minority leader in the House, or John Touhy, the Democratic minority whip.[n 2]

The redistricting commission deadlocked over a similar issue to what prevented a bipartisan map from passing the legislature – namely, the number of districts in Chicago. Democrats on the commission argued for maintaining 23 districts in Chicago, and refused to accept a map with less than 22, while Republicans would only accept a map with 21 districts in the city, with two districts being moved to the Cook County suburbs.[r 1]: 300 [n 4] Starting on November 14, the Republicans on the commission began boycotting the meetings due to Democrats' insistence that Chicago control 23 districts.[n 3] Republicans only resumed attending the meetings on December 12, two days before the final deadline to agree on a new map.[n 3] Negotiations continued up until the deadline, with Democrats eventually proposing a map with only 22 Chicago-based districts, but the commission ultimately could not reach a compromise.[r 1]: 300 [n 1][n 3] The commission faced harsh criticism in editorials for its failure to agree on a map, with particularly strong criticism directed at the Democratic members for insisting on more Chicago-based districts than the city's population warranted.[r 1]: 300 

Court rulings and special legislative session[edit]

Before the commission's ultimate failure to create maps, Republican state representative Gale Williams sued to overturn Kerner's veto of the legislative map, arguing that the governor had no authority to veto a redistricting bill. Kerner's actions were defended by the Illinois Attorney General, William G. Clark. This lawsuit was initially dismissed by Sangamon County Circuit Court judge Dewitt S. Crow on July 16.[n 5] Williams appealed to the Illinois Supreme Court, which dismissed his case on November 13.[r 1]: 299 [n 6][n 7]

Two lawsuits were decided by the Supreme Court on January 4, 1964.[n 8][r 1]: 300  First, a lawsuit filed by Republican state representative Fred Branson challenged the legality of the commission, arguing that since the legislature had not "failed to act" on redistricting, as they had passed a map, a commission could not be established. This lawsuit instead requested that the election be held using the previous redistricting cycle's map.[n 9] The court rejected this argument, ruling that an at-large election had to take place. Secondly, a lawsuit filed by Chicago lawyer Gus Giannis argued that an at-large election also had to take place for the State Senate.[n 8] In response to this case, Attorney General Clark issued a ruling stating that an at-large election would be required for the Senate as well.[n 10] The Supreme Court rejected this argument, ruling that the constitution would only mandate an at-large election for the Senate if the chamber had not been redistricted in 1956, as the constitution did not otherwise require the Senate to be redistricted.[p 2][r 1]: 300 

Following the court's decisions, Kerner called a special session of the legislature on January 6 to set up procedures for the at-large election.[n 11] Kerner proposed procedures for the election, which the legislature was to consider. Notably, Illinois's practice of cumulative voting for the House of Representatives would be suspended, and instead minority party representation was to be guaranteed by only allowing each party to nominate 118 candidates for the 177 seats available.[r 1]: 301–302 [n 12]

An initial bill was passed unanimously by the House, but sunk by Republicans in the Senate over concerns that each party would choose to nominate fewer than 118 candidates, leading to an uncompetitive election unfairly favorable to incumbents. The Senate passed an amendment requiring that at least 118 candidates be nominated.[n 13] However, the House refused to adopt this amendment. On January 28, nearing the deadline for the legislation, the Senate passed the House's bill, which suggested each party nominate 100 candidates while limiting each party to 118 candidates.[n 14] The vote on the final bill was 161–0 in the House and 46–6 in the Senate. Kerner signed the bill on January 29.[r 1]: 302 

A sample ballot for the election from Lake County

Election procedure and campaign[edit]

Under the terms of the special session's emergency bill, each party could nominate up to 118 candidates at their party convention.[n 11] Delegates to each party's convention were elected using the previous districts during the state's April primary.[r 1]: 301–302  The House recommended that each party nominate 100 candidates, to protect incumbent House members and ensure the minority party would have at least 77 seats.[n 11] Third-party and independent candidates could also run, though they needed to gather 25,000 signatures to make the ballot.[n 15]

The election was held on November 3, 1964, as part of the 1964 Illinois elections.[r 1]: 289 

Candidate selection[edit]

Both the Democratic and Republican conventions were held on June 1 in Springfield. The Republican convention, held at a local Elks Club building, was controlled by delegates loyal to Charles H. Percy, the party's candidate for governor. Delegates loyal to Percy refused to renominate nine incumbent legislators from the Chicago area, a part of the so-called "West Side bloc", who were viewed as loyal to the Democratic political machine in Cook County.[c][r 1]: 302 [n 18] In the end, 70 Republican incumbents were renominated. The Democratic convention, held at the St. Nicholas Hotel, delegated the responsibility for preparing a slate of candidates to an executive committee. The convention met again on June 20 to approve the candidates; all 68 incumbents who chose to run were renominated with little controversy. Both parties nominated slates of 118 candidates in total.[r 1]: 302–303 

There were multiple attempts to run a "Third Slate" of candidates. The Better Government Association of Chicago, along with some downstate politicians, presented a "blue ribbon" slate of candidates. However, with both parties putting up what were deemed to be acceptable slates of candidates, and Republicans choosing not to renominate the West Side bloc and nominating some blue ribbon candidates instead, this Third Slate effort disbanded.[n 18][n 19]

Another attempt to put a Third Slate on the ballot was backed by various civil rights groups and labor unions, including the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers and the United Auto Workers.[n 20] Their planned platform focused on election reform and civil rights. The Third Slate intended on nominating 59 candidates, allowing a voter to straight-ticket vote for the slate as well as one of the two major parties.[n 21] However, this Third Slate failed to make the ballot, with the Illinois State Board of Elections ruling on August 21 that they had failed to gather the 25,000 signatures necessary.[n 22]

Popular names were picked to run on each party's ticket. Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson III, the son of Adlai Stevenson II (a popular former governor), and John A. Kennedy, a businessman with a similar name (but no relation) to president John F. Kennedy, who had been assassinated the previous year. Republicans ran Earl D. Eisenhower, the brother of popular former president Dwight D. Eisenhower.[n 19]


The ballot for the State House election was separate from the ballot for other concurrent elections. Voters were allowed to cast up to 177 votes, with a straight-ticket voting option available to vote for all 118 candidates of a party's slate. Voters who voted straight-ticket could also vote for up to 59 candidates from the other party. Both parties recommended utilizing straight-ticket voting.[n 23] The ballot was 33 inches (84 cm) long and was often referred to as the "bedsheet ballot".[n 19]

Both parties used the same ordering when listing their candidates on the ballot. Incumbent legislators were placed at the top, ordered by seniority, alternating between candidates from Cook County and downstate. The remaining candidates were then listed, also alternating between Cook County and downstate candidates.[r 1]: 306 

There were four ballots given to voters in 1964: a white ballot, containing most of the typical races (such as for president and governor); a green ballot, voting on the retention elections for various judges; a blue ballot, containing two constitutional amendments to be voted on; and the orange ballot, solely reserved for the House of Representatives election. Before the election, the sheer number of ballots to be voted on led to predictions of a high number of undervotes in the House of Representatives election, but post-election analysis revealed that this did not take place.[r 1]: 303–304 

Campaigning and endorsements[edit]

Both parties encouraged a straight-ticket vote. Republicans explicitly discouraged voting for any Democratic candidates, arguing that voting for Democrats would cause the legislature to become controlled by Richard J. Daley, the mayor of Chicago. The Democratic campaign, run by the Democratic State Central Committee, argued that a straight-ticket vote would "assure representation from every district in Illinois".[r 1]: 303  Individual candidates for the legislature generally avoided campaigning across the state, instead only campaigning around their home region, if at all.[r 1]: 303 [n 19]

Many newspapers endorsed a partisan slate. The Field Enterprises newspapers,[d] the Chicago Tribune, the Champaign News-Gazette, and the Illinois State Journal endorsed the Republican slate. However, the Illinois State Register, which was, like the Illinois State Journal, under Copley ownership, had a different editorial team and endorsed the Democratic slate.[r 4] Given the unique electoral system allowing voters to vote for candidates of both parties, some newspapers made bipartisan endorsements of candidates, either in addition to their partisan endorsements, or without making an overall partisan endorsement.[r 4] The Lindsay-Schaub group[e] of newspapers endorsed 48 Democrats and 48 Republicans after sending a questionnaire to all candidates in the election, suggesting voters choose a straight-ticket and all of the newspaper's endorsed candidates of the opposing party.[r 4][n 18] Likewise, the Daily Herald, a newspaper serving the suburbs of Chicago, endorsed seven candidates (four Republicans and three Democrats) who they believed had a good understanding of suburban issues.[n 24]



Results were not known immediately after the election; while the results in other statewide races were known on November 4, the statewide tally and canvass for the House elections took multiple weeks.[n 25] Based on early reported returns in some downstate precincts, Democrats declared victory on November 4, predicting that they had elected their entire slate. However, Republicans did not yet concede, believing they still had a chance of victory.[n 26] Cook County's results were fully counted by November 9, though not reported until later.[n 27] Unofficial results for 100 downstate counties, excluding Cook and DuPage, were reported on November 26, showing a strong performance by Democrats.[n 28] Unofficial statewide results were reported on December 3, showing that every Democratic candidate had won, with many Republican incumbents losing re-election.[n 29]

Five Republican candidates[f] obtained an injunction over the results in DuPage County, claiming that there were errors in the vote count in five precincts.[n 31] The injunction was issued by circuit judge Philip Locke on November 30. After the release of statewide results, it became apparent that the discrepancies would not affect the overall balance of power in the legislature.[n 32] On December 14, Democratic Attorney General William G. Clark filed a motion to move the case to the Illinois Supreme Court, to force the vote count to be released. The Illinois Supreme Court acted on this on January 6, 1965, releasing the DuPage results only hours before legislators were sworn in. Locke interpreted the Supreme Court's order as allowing him to order recounts in certain precincts, which he did. The recounts found only minor errors with no significant impact on the results.[n 33]


Elected members by county[r 5]: 195–311 
Number of members elected from each county
  91 members
  5 members
  4 members
  3 members
  2 members
  1 member
Partisanship of each county's delegation
  Only Democrats
  Majority Democrats
  Only Republicans
  Majority Republicans
  No members

Straight-ticket votes elected Democrats to the majority, with every Democrat receiving more votes than any Republican, resulting in the election of all 118 Democratic candidates.[r 1]: 305  The strong Democratic performance was attributed to coattails from Democratic president Lyndon B. Johnson's victory over Republican Barry Goldwater in the 1964 United States presidential election in Illinois.[n 19] However, voters who did not vote only straight-ticket had a significant impact as well: they determined the 59 Republicans who were elected, as well as the order of the winning Democratic candidates.[r 1]: 306 

Contrary to many preelection predictions, voting was not driven by ballot order, with little correlation between where candidates were placed on the ballot and how many votes they received. The top-placing Democrat was Adlai E. Stevenson III, while the top-placing Republican was Earl D. Eisenhower. Both were listed on the bottom half of their respective side of the ballot (Stevenson was the 102nd Democratic candidate listed, and Eisenhower the 79th Republican).[r 1]: 306  The results were strongly influenced by endorsements. In downstate Illinois, these were mainly those of the Illinois Agricultural Association and the Illinois AFL-CIO, as well as the Lindsay-Schaub group[e] of downstate newspapers. However, the election was mainly decided in Chicago and its suburbs, where the endorsements of the Field Enterprises newspapers,[d] and to a lesser extent the Chicago American,[r 4] were mostly responsible for the results.[r 4][r 1]: 306  There were also relatively few undervotes; post-election estimates showed that only about 5% of those who voted in the presidential election did not vote in the House election.[r 6][r 1]: 304 

Among the Democrats elected, 68 were incumbents while 50 were new members, and among the Republicans, 31 were incumbents and 28 were new members. 37 incumbent Republicans who ran for reelection lost their seats.[r 1]: 307  Geographically, candidates living in Cook County won a narrow majority of seats. About half of counties had no representatives, and a majority of representatives from both Cook County and from downstate were Democrats.[r 1]: 307 [g]

1964 Illinois House of Representatives election[p 3][r 3]: 159 
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Adlai E. Stevenson III 2,417,978 0.46%
Democratic John K. Morris (incumbent) 2,410,365 0.46%
Democratic Anthony Scariano (incumbent) 2,385,622 0.45%
Democratic John P. Touhy (incumbent) 2,378,228 0.45%
Democratic Abner J. Mikva (incumbent) 2,377,439 0.45%
Democratic William A. Redmond (incumbent) 2,371,134 0.45%
Democratic Joseph T. Connelly 2,369,556 0.45%
Democratic John E. Cassidy, Jr. 2,368,063 0.45%
Democratic John A. Kennedy 2,367,755 0.45%
Democratic Bernard M. Peskin (incumbent) 2,367,287 0.45%
Democratic Chester P. Majewski (incumbent) 2,366,785 0.45%
Democratic Daniel M. Pierce 2,364,469 0.45%
Democratic James P. Loukas (incumbent) 2,363,338 0.45%
Democratic Esther Saperstein (incumbent) 2,361,847 0.45%
Democratic Mrs. Dorah Grow 2,360,574 0.45%
Democratic Harold D. Stedelin 2,358,491 0.45%
Democratic Lloyd (Curly) Harris (incumbent) 2,357,709 0.45%
Democratic Paul F. Elward (incumbent) 2,357,524 0.45%
Democratic William E. Hartnett 2,356,700 0.45%
Democratic Marvin S. Lieberman 2,356,576 0.45%
Democratic Robert E. Mann (incumbent) 2,356,342 0.45%
Democratic Harold A. Katz 2,355,168 0.45%
Democratic James Moran 2,354,684 0.45%
Democratic Cecil A. Partee (incumbent) 2,351,757 0.45%
Democratic Eugenia S. Chapman 2,351,257 0.45%
Democratic Raymond J. Welsh, Jr. (incumbent) 2,349,573 0.45%
Democratic Joe (Joseph) Callahan 2,348,350 0.45%
Democratic J. W. (Bill) Scott (incumbent) 2,343,772 0.45%
Democratic William Pierce (incumbent) 2,341,983 0.45%
Democratic James C. Kirie 2,340,388 0.45%
Democratic Edward A. Warman 2,340,263 0.45%
Democratic Leland Rayson 2,339,745 0.45%
Democratic E. J. (Zeke) Giorgi 2,339,506 0.45%
Democratic Phillip C. Goldstick 2,337,565 0.44%
Democratic John Merlo (incumbent) 2,337,425 0.44%
Democratic Allen T. Lucas (incumbent) 2,333,588 0.44%
Democratic James A. McLendon 2,332,951 0.44%
Democratic John M. Daley 2,332,665 0.44%
Democratic Leland J. Kennedy (incumbent) 2,331,981 0.44%
Democratic Paul E. Rink (incumbent) 2,331,722 0.44%
Democratic James D. Carrigan (incumbent) 2,330,860 0.44%
Democratic Joe W. Russell (incumbent) 2,330,466 0.44%
Democratic Melvin McNairy 2,328,466 0.44%
Democratic Harold Washington 2,328,125 0.44%
Democratic John Jerome (Jack) Hill (incumbent) 2,328,023 0.44%
Democratic Clyde Lee (incumbent) 2,326,629 0.44%
Democratic Clyde L. Choate (incumbent) 2,324,383 0.44%
Democratic Charles Ed Schaefer (incumbent) 2,324,100 0.44%
Democratic James D. Holloway (incumbent) 2,323,732 0.44%
Democratic Chester R. Wiktorski, Jr. (incumbent) 2,321,044 0.44%
Democratic Robert V. Walsh (incumbent) 2,320,956 0.44%
Democratic William J. Schoeninger 2,320,724 0.44%
Democratic James Von Boeckman 2,320,580 0.44%
Democratic Roy Curtis Small 2,320,211 0.44%
Democratic C. R. (Butch) Ratcliffe (incumbent) 2,318,456 0.44%
Democratic Joseph P. Stremlau (incumbent) 2,316,029 0.44%
Democratic Francis X. Mahoney 2,315,855 0.44%
Democratic Carl H. Wittmond (incumbent) 2,315,638 0.44%
Democratic Miles E. Mills (incumbent) 2,315,065 0.44%
Democratic Elmo (Mac) McClain 2,314,645 0.44%
Democratic Corneal A. Davis (incumbent) 2,313,943 0.44%
Democratic Robert Craig (incumbent) 2,313,925 0.44%
Democratic Tobias (Toby) Barry (incumbent) 2,312,923 0.44%
Democratic Fred J. Schraeder 2,312,797 0.44%
Democratic William A. Moore, M.D. 2,311,742 0.44%
Democratic Bert Baker (incumbent) 2,311,412 0.44%
Democratic Leo F. O'Brien 2,309,250 0.44%
Democratic John J. McNichols 2,306,601 0.44%
Democratic Leo Pfeffer (incumbent) 2,306,163 0.44%
Democratic John W. Alsup (incumbent) 2,306,002 0.44%
Democratic Michael H. McDermott (incumbent) 2,305,217 0.44%
Democratic Frank C. Wolf (incumbent) 2,304,540 0.44%
Democratic William J. Frey 2,303,934 0.44%
Democratic Dan E. Costello (incumbent) 2,303,723 0.44%
Democratic Daniel O'Neill 2,303,161 0.44%
Democratic Howard R. Slater 2,301,528 0.44%
Democratic Charles F. Armstrong (incumbent) 2,301,421 0.44%
Democratic Michael E. Hannigan (incumbent) 2,299,077 0.44%
Democratic H. B. Tanner 2,298,128 0.44%
Democratic Thomas J. Hanahan, Jr. 2,297,898 0.44%
Democratic Francis J. Loughran (incumbent) 2,297,846 0.44%
Democratic Frank X. Downey (incumbent) 2,296,178 0.44%
Democratic Joseph Fennessey 2,295,190 0.44%
Democratic Dan Teefey (incumbent) 2,293,692 0.44%
Democratic Joseph Tumpach 2,293,423 0.44%
Democratic Leo B. Obernuefemann 2,292,278 0.44%
Democratic Matt Ropa (incumbent) 2,291,587 0.44%
Democratic James Y. Carter (incumbent) 2,291,419 0.44%
Democratic Henry M. Lenard (incumbent) 2,291,033 0.44%
Democratic Oral (Jake) Jacobs 2,290,242 0.44%
Democratic John J. Houlihan 2,289,912 0.44%
Democratic Frank J. Smith (incumbent) 2,287,950 0.44%
Democratic Omer Sanders 2,287,943 0.44%
Democratic Kenneth W. Course (incumbent) 2,285,860 0.43%
Democratic Sam Romano (incumbent) 2,285,599 0.43%
Democratic LaSalle J. DeMichaels 2,285,455 0.43%
Democratic Andrew A. Euzzino (incumbent) 2,284,415 0.43%
Democratic William A. Giblin 2,284,254 0.43%
Democratic John P. Downes (incumbent) 2,283,416 0.43%
Democratic John G. Fary (incumbent) 2,283,240 0.43%
Democratic Edward J. Shaw (incumbent) 2,283,155 0.43%
Democratic Peter J. Whalen (incumbent) 2,281,873 0.43%
Democratic Robert F. McPartlin (incumbent) 2,281,797 0.43%
Democratic John M. Vitek (incumbent) 2,281,726 0.43%
Democratic John F. Leon (incumbent) 2,281,623 0.43%
Democratic Edward F. Sensor 2,281,431 0.43%
Democratic Joseph F. Fanta 2,281,018 0.43%
Democratic Bernard B. Wolfe 2,280,958 0.43%
Democratic Nicholas Zagone (incumbent) 2,280,192 0.43%
Democratic Edward W. Wolbank (incumbent) 2,279,315 0.43%
Democratic Frank Lyman (incumbent) 2,279,018 0.43%
Democratic Peter M. Callan (incumbent) 2,278,241 0.43%
Democratic Calvin L. Smith 2,278,068 0.43%
Democratic Frank J. Broucek 2,276,080 0.43%
Democratic Benedict Garmisa 2,275,684 0.43%
Democratic Nick Svalina (incumbent) 2,275,432 0.43%
Democratic Otis G. Collins 2,274,028 0.43%
Democratic Lawrence DiPrima (incumbent) 2,262,258 0.43%
Republican Earl D. Eisenhower 2,191,826 0.42%
Republican Charles W. Clabaugh (incumbent) 2,186,592 0.42%
Republican John Clinton Youle 2,184,069 0.42%
Republican William E. Pollack (incumbent) 2,178,460 0.41%
Republican Noble W. Lee (incumbent) 2,177,503 0.41%
Republican Paul J. Randolph 2,176,388 0.41%
Republican Mrs. Robert (Marjorie) Pebworth 2,175,501 0.41%
Republican Frances L. Dawson (incumbent) 2,173,989 0.41%
Republican Lawrence X. Pusateri 2,172,480 0.41%
Republican Carl W. Soderstrom (incumbent) 2,172,032 0.41%
Republican George F. Sisler 2,171,458 0.41%
Republican John C. Parkhurst (incumbent) 2,169,751 0.41%
Republican John W. Carroll (incumbent) 2,169,659 0.41%
Republican Terrel E. Clarke (incumbent) 2,167,451 0.41%
Republican Albert W. Hachmeister (incumbent) 2,166,786 0.41%
Republican William D. Walsh (incumbent) 2,166,243 0.41%
Republican J. David Jones 2,165,919 0.41%
Republican Mrs. Brooks McCormick 2,165,415 0.41%
Republican William L. Blaser 2,163,785 0.41%
Republican George Thiem 2,162,963 0.41%
Republican Maj. Gen. Robert M. Woodward 2,161,782 0.41%
Republican Thomas F. Railsback (incumbent) 2,161,428 0.41%
Republican Harris Rowe (incumbent) 2,159,212 0.41%
Republican Richard A. Walsh (incumbent) 2,158,621 0.41%
Republican Arthur E. Simmons (incumbent) 2,157,072 0.41%
Republican George M. Burditt 2,156,996 0.41%
Republican Clarence E. Neff (incumbent) 2,156,668 0.41%
Republican Lewis V. Morgan, Jr. (incumbent) 2,155,932 0.41%
Republican Alan R. Johnston (incumbent) 2,155,834 0.41%
Republican John H. Conolly (incumbent) 2,155,828 0.41%
Republican Ronald A. Hurst 2,155,622 0.41%
Republican John W. Lewis, Jr. (incumbent) 2,154,348 0.41%
Republican Leslie N. Jones 2,153,681 0.41%
Republican G. William Horsley (incumbent) 2,152,602 0.41%
Republican John Henry Kleine 2,152,221 0.41%
Republican Herbert F. Geisler 2,151,603 0.41%
Republican James H. Oughton, Jr. 2,150,431 0.41%
Republican Paul P. Boswell, M.D. 2,149,578 0.41%
Republican Edward H. Jenison 2,149,326 0.41%
Republican Mary K. Meany 2,147,427 0.41%
Republican Eugene F. Schlickman 2,145,913 0.41%
Republican W. Robert Blair 2,145,703 0.41%
Republican Jack T. Knuepfer 2,143,965 0.41%
Republican Ralph T. Smith (incumbent) 2,143,304 0.41%
Republican Wayne Fitzgerrell (incumbent) 2,142,955 0.41%
Republican Robert R. Canfield 2,142,725 0.41%
Republican Carl L. Klein 2,142,638 0.41%
Republican Francis J. Berry 2,142,274 0.41%
Republican Stanley A. Papierz 2,141,662 0.41%
Republican Ben S. Rhodes (incumbent) 2,141,539 0.41%
Republican Don A. Moore (incumbent) 2,140,695 0.41%
Republican Bernard McDevitt (incumbent) 2,139,731 0.41%
Republican C. L. McCormick (incumbent) 2,138,193 0.41%
Republican Jack Bowers 2,137,573 0.41%
Republican Dr Edwin E. Dale (incumbent) 2,137,486 0.41%
Republican Dean McCully (incumbent) 2,136,128 0.41%
Republican Ed Lehman (incumbent) 2,134,749 0.41%
Republican Michael A. Ruddy (incumbent) 2,134,681 0.41%
Republican William J. "Bill" Cunningham 2,134,243 0.41%
Republican W. K. (Kenny) Davidson (incumbent) 2,132,504 0.41%
Republican Louis Janczak (incumbent) 2,132,011 0.41%
Republican W. J. McDonald 2,130,597 0.41%
Republican Joseph R. Hale (incumbent) 2,128,570 0.40%
Republican Fred Branson (incumbent) 2,127,908 0.40%
Republican Nick Keller 2,126,958 0.40%
Republican Charles M. (Chuck) Campbell (incumbent) 2,126,209 0.40%
Republican Edward McBroom (incumbent) 2,126,189 0.40%
Republican George S. Brydia (incumbent) 2,126,047 0.40%
Republican Harland D. Warren (incumbent) 2,125,539 0.40%
Republican Robert J. Lehnhausen 2,124,841 0.40%
Republican Charles K. Willett (incumbent) 2,124,588 0.40%
Republican A. B. McConnell (incumbent) 2,124,433 0.40%
Republican William F. Martin 2,123,689 0.40%
Republican John E. Velde, Jr. 2,122,408 0.40%
Republican Meade Baltz (incumbent) 2,121,885 0.40%
Republican H. B. Ihnen (incumbent) 2,120,757 0.40%
Republican John W. Johnson 2,119,621 0.40%
Republican John J. Donovan (incumbent) 2,119,546 0.40%
Republican Frank A. Marek (incumbent) 2,119,175 0.40%
Republican Garrel Burgoon (incumbent) 2,118,800 0.40%
Republican Edward M. Finfgeld (incumbent) 2,118,682 0.40%
Republican Edward Schneider (incumbent) 2,118,514 0.40%
Republican Raymond E. (Ray) Anderson (incumbent) 2,118,462 0.40%
Republican Merle K. Anderson (incumbent) 2,118,328 0.40%
Republican Orval W. Hittmeier (incumbent) 2,118,246 0.40%
Republican Paul F. Jones (incumbent) 2,117,605 0.40%
Republican Claude A. Walker (incumbent) 2,117,257 0.40%
Republican J. Horace Gardner (incumbent) 2,116,919 0.40%
Republican Hubert A. Dailey 2,116,519 0.40%
Republican Bradley L. Manning 2,116,339 0.40%
Republican Albert E. Bennett 2,116,319 0.40%
Republican Charles O. Miller (incumbent) 2,116,139 0.40%
Republican Kenneth W. Miller (incumbent) 2,116,012 0.40%
Republican Marshall R. Schroeder 2,115,493 0.40%
Republican George P. Johns (incumbent) 2,115,224 0.40%
Republican Edwin A. McGowan (incumbent) 2,115,107 0.40%
Republican Elwood Graham (incumbent) 2,114,521 0.40%
Republican Arthur J. Reis 2,114,337 0.40%
Republican Ben C. Blades (incumbent) 2,114,263 0.40%
Republican Carl T. Hunsicker (incumbent) 2,114,146 0.40%
Republican Allan L. "Al" Schoeberlein (incumbent) 2,113,809 0.40%
Republican John F. Wall (incumbent) 2,113,500 0.40%
Republican Oscar Hansen (incumbent) 2,113,266 0.40%
Republican Paul K. Zeman 2,113,065 0.40%
Republican Jack E. Walker (incumbent) 2,112,532 0.40%
Republican Edward A. Bundy 2,111,052 0.40%
Republican Sydney L. "Syd" Perkins 2,109,299 0.40%
Republican Eugene T. Devitt 2,108,237 0.40%
Republican Jack D. Songer 2,107,794 0.40%
Republican David W. Johnson 2,105,944 0.40%
Republican Richard L. LoDestro (incumbent) 2,104,909 0.40%
Republican James D. Heiple 2,104,813 0.40%
Republican Romie J. Palmer 2,103,232 0.40%
Republican J. Theodore Meyer 2,103,129 0.40%
Republican Raymond J. Kahoun (incumbent) 2,098,387 0.40%
Republican Norbert L. Lundberg 2,098,300 0.40%
Republican Alfred B. Two 2,098,286 0.40%
Republican Hellmut W. Stolle (incumbent) 2,094,314 0.40%
Total votes 525,723,540 100%


The results provided a significant shake-up of the balance of power in the state. While Republicans had maintained control of the Illinois Senate, Democrats held the governorship and won a two-thirds supermajority in the State House. Democrats elected John P. Touhy as the speaker of the House.[n 34]

Governmental reform[edit]

The election of many "blue ribbon" candidates in both parties led to a focus on governmental reform, especially improvements to the operation of the legislature.[r 1]: 290  The legislature formed the Illinois Commission on the Organization of the General Assembly, chaired by state representative Harold A. Katz.[r 7]: iv  In 1967, the commission published a report—Improving the State Legislature—detailing 87 improvements it found that could be made to state government.[r 7]: 139–146  Building on this, the 75th General Assembly (elected in 1966) proposed a constitutional convention, which was approved by voters in 1968, creating the Sixth Illinois Constitutional Convention. The convention was successful in creating a new constitution, which was approved by voters in 1970.[r 1]: 290 


One of the first matters the newly elected legislature had to consider was redistricting. New maps for the State House had to be passed to avoid another at-large election, while new maps for the State Senate had to be passed to comply with the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Reynolds v. Sims, which required that state legislature districts be roughly equal in population. There was again difficulty in passing maps, with downstate and Chicago legislators not wanting to give up representation in favor of the suburbs, which had grown their relative share of the population. In the end, the Illinois Supreme Court and the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois agreed on a new map for the State Senate in compliance with Reynolds v. Sims, while a legislative committee appointed by the governor was responsible for redistricting the House.[r 8][n 35][p 4] The resulting maps were relatively fair to both parties, although they caused a significant shift of power from downstate to the Chicago area.[r 8]: 16–17 

Illinois's constitution was rewritten in 1970. The new constitution modified the procedures for redistricting, adding a tie-breaking member to the redistricting commission that would be established if the legislature failed to redistrict.[r 8]: 18  The tie-breaking member would only be added if the commission deadlocked, and would be randomly chosen by the Secretary of State, with one candidate nominated by each party.[r 1]: 308 

The legislative process was not successful for redistricting in 1971, 1981, 1991, or 2001, necessitating a commission be formed in each case. In 1971, the commission was successful without a tie-breaker.[r 1]: 308  A tie-breaker was needed in 1981, with a Democrat being chosen by Secretary of State Jim Edgar; the resulting map was biased in favor of the Democratic Party. In 1991, the legislature, controlled by Democrats, passed a map that was vetoed by now-governor Edgar. With the commission initially unsuccessful, Secretary of State George Ryan chose a Republican for the tie-breaker. However, the Illinois Supreme Court, controlled by Democrats, rejected the commission's initial plan, threatening an at-large election if the commission could not create a valid plan.[r 1]: 310  Ryan described this as a potential constitutional crisis.[n 19] The commission eventually enacted a map which survived court challenges after a Democrat on the court voted with the court's Republicans to uphold the map. In 2001, the commission needed a tie-breaker, with Secretary of State Jesse White selecting a Democrat; the commission passed its maps on a party-line basis.[r 1]: 310 

The failure of the legislature to redistrict in six consecutive redistricting cycles (between 1963 and 2001), as well as the commission failing in most of those years without a tie-breaker, has received significant criticism. Politicians have been described as choosing to play "redistricting roulette" in attempts to get a favorable map, instead of compromising to draw a fair one. As of 2001, Illinois was the only state to use a randomly selected tie-breaker for its redistricting commission.[r 1]: 311 

This was the only time in which a state legislative election was held at-large in the United States.[r 4] However, at-large elections have been held for all of a state's congressional seats when states have failed to pass a congressional map.[h][n 36]

Members elected[edit]

The 1964 election helped launch the political careers of certain Democrats, including Adlai E. Stevenson III, who later represented Illinois in the U.S. Senate, and Harold Washington, who eventually became mayor of Chicago.[n 19] The last member elected in 1964 to leave the House was Edolo J. Giorgi, a Democrat from Rockford, who served until his death in 1993.[n 19][n 37]

In 2000, Pat Quinn, a state politician and future governor, proposed that some members of the Illinois legislature should be elected at-large, arguing that the 1964 election had produced many good legislators.[r 1]: 312 


  1. ^ a b Popular vote figures represent the total amounts of Democratic and Republican votes. Since every voter could vote for 177 candidates, this sums to a grand total much larger than the population of Illinois.
  2. ^ Districts were used for both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Each district elected one member to the Senate and three to the House of Representatives with a version of cumulative voting, where each voter had three votes, and had the option to vote multiple times for a single candidate. This system was intended to ensure a bipartisan delegation from each district.[r 1]: 291 
  3. ^ Of these nine candidates, three, Gale Williams, J. Lisle Laufer, and Hector Brouillet, were not elected as convention delegates.[n 16] The remaining six were W. J. Murphy, Robert Austin, Peter Granata, Louis Capuzi, Peter J. Miller, and Walter McAvoy.[n 17]
  4. ^ a b Includes the Chicago Daily News and the Chicago Sun-Times.[r 4]
  5. ^ a b Includes The Southern Illinoisan, the Champaign–Urbana Courier, the Decatur Herald and Review, and the East St. Louis Journal.[r 4]
  6. ^ Lewis V. Morgan, Jack T. Knuepfer, Jack Bowers, Arthur J. Reis, and Edward A. Bundy[n 30]
  7. ^ The exact membership counts differ slightly between McDowell 2007 and the 1965–1966 Illinois Blue Book, which it cites as its source.[r 5]: 195–311 
  8. ^ The U.S. Congress did not pass legislation requiring states redistrict following the 1930 United States census. Following this, in 1932, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, and Virginia elected their House members at-large with plurality block voting. North Dakota continued to do so until 1960. Arizona did so in 1942, 1944, and 1946. Following the loss of a congressional seat in the 1960 United States census, Alabama elected all of its members at-large in 1962. New Mexico elected their members at-large starting in 1942, and Hawaii in 1962; both states continued doing so until this practice was banned in 1967 by the Uniform Congressional District Act.[r 9]


Books and reports[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av McDowell, James L. (2007). "The Orange-Ballot Election: The 1964 Illinois At-Large Vote—and After". Journal of Illinois History. 10: 289–314. Archived from the original on 2023-11-06. Retrieved 2023-10-23.
  2. ^ Carpentier, Charles F. (ed.). Illinois Blue Book (1961-1962 ed.). Illinois Secretary of State. Archived from the original on 2023-11-06. Retrieved 2023-10-24.
  3. ^ a b Chamberlain, William H. (ed.). Illinois Blue Book (1963-1964 ed.). Illinois Secretary of State. Archived from the original on 2023-10-09. Retrieved 2023-09-16.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h McDowell, James L. (June 1965). "The Role of Newspapers in Illinois' At-Large Election". Journalism Quarterly. 42 (2): 281–284. doi:10.1177/107769906504200217. S2CID 144140012. Archived from the original on January 27, 2024. Retrieved November 6, 2023.
  5. ^ a b Powell, Paul (ed.). Illinois Blue Book (1965-1966 ed.). Illinois Secretary of State. Archived from the original on 2023-12-03. Retrieved 2023-12-03.
  6. ^ Hooper, Michael (June 1969). "Party and Newspaper Endorsement as Predictors of Voter Choice". Journalism Quarterly. 46 (2): 302–305. doi:10.1177/107769906904600211.
  7. ^ a b Improving the State Legislature: A Report of the Illinois Commission on the Organization of the General Assembly. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 1967.
  8. ^ a b c Green, Paul M. (1987). Legislative Redistricting in Illinois: An Historical Analysis (PDF) (Report). Illinois Commission on Intergovernmental Cooperation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-12-24. Retrieved 2023-09-17.
  9. ^ Flores, Nicolas. "The 1967 Single-Member District Mandate". Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2021.


  1. ^ a b c Wehrwein, Austin (October 29, 1964). "Ballot in Illinois Big as Bath Towel". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 5, 2021. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Kerner Names Commission for House Remap". The Daily Register. August 15, 1963. Archived from the original on October 26, 2023. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d "Redistricting Deadline Tonight; Still Hoping". The Telegraph. Associated Press. December 14, 1963. Archived from the original on October 26, 2023. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  4. ^ Wood, Percy (November 4, 1963). "Here's What Remap Fight is All About". Chicago Tribune. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on October 26, 2023. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  5. ^ "Appeal Pending on Validation of Remap Veto". Galesburg Register-Mail. Murphysboro, Illinois. Associated Press. July 18, 1963. p. 2. Archived from the original on January 17, 2024. Retrieved January 17, 2024.
  6. ^ "Redistricting Veto Studied by High Court". Belleville News-Democrat. Associated Press. November 12, 1963. Archived from the original on October 26, 2023. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  7. ^ "Remapping Veto Upheld". Edwardsville Intelligencer. United Press International. November 13, 1963. Archived from the original on January 17, 2024. Retrieved January 17, 2024.
  8. ^ a b "Illinois to Elect House At-large". The New York Times. January 5, 1964. Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  9. ^ Bakke, Bruce B. (November 22, 1963). "GOP Boycotts Remap Sessions; Another Lawsuit Filed". Edwardsville Intelligencer. United Press International. Archived from the original on October 26, 2023. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  10. ^ "Senate Aspirant Asks At-Large Court Ruling". The Pantagraph. United Press International. December 22, 1963. Archived from the original on October 26, 2023. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  11. ^ a b c "Illinois Sets Up At-large Voting". The New York Times. January 30, 1964. Archived from the original on April 19, 2023. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  12. ^ "Court Rejects Challenge to At-Large Vote". Herald & Review. Springfield. Associated Press. April 22, 1964. Archived from the original on October 28, 2023. Retrieved October 28, 2023.
  13. ^ "Showdown Tuesday on At-Large Election". Mt. Vernon Register-News. Chicago. Associated Press. January 27, 1964. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 18, 2024. Retrieved January 18, 2024.
  14. ^ "Gov. Kerner Signs Emergency Bill for At-Large Election". The Dispatch. Associated Press. January 29, 1964. p. 2. Archived from the original on January 18, 2024. Retrieved January 18, 2024.
  15. ^ Howard, Robert (June 4, 1964). "Legal Blocks Seen to Third Slate in State". Chicago Tribune. p. 23. Archived from the original on January 11, 2024. Retrieved January 11, 2024.
  16. ^ "West Side Bloc Hit". Southern Illinoisan. May 10, 1964. p. 26. Archived from the original on January 17, 2024. Retrieved January 17, 2024.
  17. ^ "Percy Raps Demo 'Alliance'; Seeks Okay on House Candidates". Belvidere Daily Republican. Associated Press. June 1, 1964. pp. 1, 8. Archived from the original on January 17, 2024. Retrieved January 17, 2024.
  18. ^ a b c "Newspaper Supplement Explains At-Large House Vote". The Southern Illinoisan. October 25, 1964. Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Pearson, Rick; Hardy, Thomas (December 17, 1991). "Ruling Rekindles Visions of '64 'Bedsheet' Ballot". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 2021-03-02. Retrieved 2021-03-08.
  20. ^ "This 'Third Slate' Different". The Pantagraph. August 6, 1964. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  21. ^ "Third Slate Party Now Distributing Petitions". The Daily Register. Peoria. July 31, 1964. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  22. ^ "Third Party is Ruled Out". Daily Chronicle. August 21, 1964. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  23. ^ "Questions and Answers on Illinois At-Large Election". The Daily Register. September 24, 1964. Archived from the original on January 27, 2024. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  24. ^ "Suburb Candidates Merit Our Support". Daily Herald. October 8, 1964. Archived from the original on April 12, 2023. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  25. ^ "Results Are Delayed". Chicago Tribune. November 4, 1964. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  26. ^ Howard, Robert (November 5, 1964). "Illinois House Vote Count Delayed". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  27. ^ "Results to be Kept Secret Till Canvass". Chicago Tribune. November 9, 1964. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  28. ^ "Downstaters Head G.O.P. Ballot; Chicagoans Trail". Chicago Tribune. November 26, 1964. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  29. ^ "35 in G.O.P. Lose State House Seats". Chicago Tribune. December 4, 1964. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  30. ^ "Injunction Lifted, Recount Still Asked". Daily Herald. December 10, 1964. Archived from the original on November 16, 2023. Retrieved November 16, 2023.
  31. ^ Weston, Jean (December 17, 1964). "Attorney General Enters Vote Hassle". Daily Herald. Wheaton. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  32. ^ "Won't Delay Legislature, Judge Vows". Chicago Tribune. December 25, 1964. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  33. ^ Weston, Jean (January 7, 1965). "Democrats Blast Locke's Order to Recount Ballots". Daily Herald. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  34. ^ Simpson, Bob (January 7, 1965). "Touhy Elected Speaker of House". The Pantagraph. Archived from the original on October 9, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  35. ^ Tagge, George (August 26, 1965). "Top Illinois Judges O.K. U.S. Changes". Chicago Tribune. pp. 1, 3. Archived from the original on January 23, 2024. Retrieved January 23, 2024.
  36. ^ Montgomery, David H. (February 23, 2021). "Minnesota races for Congress in 2022 could get wild". Minnesota Public Radio. St. Paul, Minnesota. Archived from the original on December 22, 2023. Retrieved December 22, 2023.
  37. ^ Pearson, Rick (October 25, 1993). "Rep Edolo J. Giorgi; Created State Lottery". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on October 29, 2023. Retrieved October 9, 2023.

Other primary sources[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Official Vote of the State of Illinois". Illinois State Board of Elections. 1962. Retrieved September 16, 2023.
  2. ^ People Ex Rel. Giannis v. Carpentier, 30 Ill. 2d 24 (Supreme Court of Illinois January 4, 1964).
  3. ^ "Official Vote of the State of Illinois". Illinois State Board of Elections. 1964. Retrieved September 16, 2023.
  4. ^ Scott v. Germano, 381 U.S. 407 (Supreme Court of the United States June 1, 1965).