Childir Eyalet

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Eyālet-i Čildir
Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire
1578–1845

The Childir Eyalet in 1609
CapitalÇıldır 1578-1628;
Ahıska 1628-1829
Oltu 1829-1845
History 
• Battle of Çıldır
1578
• Disestablished
1845
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Principality of Guria
Principality of Meskheti
Trabzon Eyalet
Kars Eyalet
Tiflis Governorate
Today part ofGeorgia
Turkey

The Eyalet of Childir[1] (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت ایالت چلدر; Eyālet-i Çıldır)[2] or Akhalzik[3][nb 1] was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire in the Southwestern Caucasus. The area of the former Çıldır Eyalet is now divided between Samtskhe-Javakheti and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara in Georgia and provinces of Artvin, Ardahan and Erzurum in Turkey. The administrative center was Çıldır between 1578 and 1628, Ahıska between 1628 and 1829, and Oltu between 1829 and 1845.

History[edit]

Samtskhe was the only Georgian principality to permanently become an Ottoman province (as the eyalet of Cildir).[4] In the eighty years after the battle of Zivin the region was gradually absorbed into the empire.[4]

The Ottomans took the Ahıska region from the Principality of Meskheti, a vassal state of Safavid dynasty. In 1578, when the new province was established, they appointed the former Georgian prince, Minuchir (who took the name of Mustafa after converting to Islam) as the first governor.[5] This eyalet expanded after taking of Ottomans Adjara region from Principality of Guria in 1582. From 1625 onwards the entire eyalet was a hereditary possession of the now-Muslim atabegs of Samtskhe,[4] which administered it as hereditary governors, with some exceptions, until the mid-18th century.[5]

During the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829), Russians occupied much of the province. The administrative centre was moved from Akhaltsikhe, which was ceded to Russia, to Oltu.[citation needed]

By the treaty of Adrianople, much of the pashalik was ceded to Russia, and became part of the Russian Akhalzik uezd (district) of Kutaisi Governorate.[3] The remaining, smaller inner part was united with the eyalet of Kars (later part of Eyalet of Erzurum) in 1845 and coastal parts was united with Trabzon Eyalet in 1829.[6]

Governors[edit]

  • 1579 - 1582: Manuchar II Jaqeli (Mustafa Pasha)
  • 1582 - 1585: Hüsrev Pasha
  • 1585 - c.1596: Ahmed Pasha
  • c.1596 - 1603: Hızır Pasha
  • 1603 - 1614: Karakash Ahmed Pasha
  • 1614 - 1625: Manuchar III Jaqeli (son of Manuchar II)
  • 1625 - 1635: Beka III Jaqeli (Sefer Pasha, brother of Manuchar II)
  • 1635 - 1647: Yusuf Pasha (son of Sefer Pasha)
  • 1647 - 1659: Rüstem Pasha (son of Yusuf Pasha)
  • 1659 - 1679: Arslan Mehmed Pasha (son of Yusuf Pasha)
  • 1679 - 1690: Yusuf II (son of Arslan)
  • 1690 - 1701: Selim Pasha (son of Arslan)
  • 1701 - 1722: Ishak Pasha (son of Yusuf II)
  • 1722 - 1725: Şehsuvarzade Mehmed Pasha
  • 1725 - 1732: Ishak Pasha (again)
  • 1732 - 1744: Yusuf III (son of Ishak)
  • 1744 - 1748: Ishak Pasha (again)
  • 1748 - 1759: Haji Ahmed Pasha (son of Ishak)
  • 29 December 1759 - 24 January 1761: Vezir Ibrahim Pasha
  • 25 January 1761 - 9 March 1767: Hasan Pasha (son of Yusuf III)
  • 10 March 1767 - 27 October 1767: Silahdar İbrahim Bey
  • 28 October 1767 - 24 June 1770: Vezir Seyyid Numan Pasha
  • 25 June 1770 - 4 January 1771: Vezir Mehmed Pasha
  • 5 January 1771 - 18 January 1790: Suleyman Pasha (grandson of Ishak Pasha)
  • 9 April 1791 - 10 August 1792: Ishak II, who oversaw the completion of the Ishak Pasha Palace[7] (son of Hasan Pasha)
  • 11 August 1792 - 21 July 1796: Mehmed Şerif Pasha (son of Suleyman Pasha)
  • 22 July 1796 - 13 January 1797: Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha
  • 14 January 1797 - 1801: Mehmet Sabit Pasha (son of Hasan Pasha)
  • 1801 - 1 November 1802: Mehmed Şerif Pasha (again)
  • 1802 - 1809: Selim Khimshiashvili (Selim Pasha)
  • 1810 - 1811: Mehmed Şerif Pasha (again)
  • 1811 - June 1815: Selim Pasha (again)
  • 3 September 1816 - 25 April 1818: Lütfullah Pasha
  • 26 April 1818 - March 1821: Benderli Ali Pasha
  • March 1821 - April 1824: Seyyid Ahmed Pasha
  • April 1824 - 14 February 1825: Haji Salih Pasha
  • 15 February 1825 - 1829: Kadirzade Osman Pasha

Administrative divisions[edit]

Sanjaks of the Eyalet in the 17th century:[8]

  1. Sanjak of Oulti (Oltu)
  2. Sanjak of Harbus
  3. Sanjak of Ardinj (Ardanuç)
  4. Sanjak of Hajrek (Hanak)
  5. Sanjak of Great Ardehan
  6. Sanjak of Postkhu
  7. Sanjak of Mahjil (Macahel)
  8. Sanjak of Ijareh-penbek
  • Hereditary sanjaks:
  1. Sanjak of Purtekrek (Yusufeli)
  2. Sanjak of Lawaneh (Livane/Artvin)
  3. Sanjak of Nusuf Awan
  4. Sanjak of Shushad (Şavşat)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Other variants of this name include Akalzike (from Malthe Conrad Bruun (1822). Universal geography, or A description of all the parts of the world. p. 121. Retrieved 2013-06-02.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Society for the diffusion of useful knowledge (1843). The penny cyclopædia [ed. by G. Long]. p. 180. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  2. ^ "Some Provinces of the Ottoman Empire". Geonames.de. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  3. ^ a b The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Charles Knight. 1838. p. 174. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
  4. ^ a b c D. E. Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire: From Earliest Times to the End of the Sixteenth Century. Brill Archive. p. 140. GGKEY:4CFA3RCNXRP. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  5. ^ a b Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  6. ^ The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. C. Knight. 1843. p. 393. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  7. ^ OVER 50,000 PEOPLE VISIT ISHAK PASHA PALACE IN EASTERN TURKEY
  8. ^ Evliya Çelebi; Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (1834). Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa in the Seventeenth Century. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 95. Retrieved 2013-06-01.