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2002 Cunningham by-election

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2002 Cunningham by-election

19 October 2002
  First party Second party
Candidate Michael Organ Sharon Bird
Party Greens Labor
Popular vote 15,505 25,671
Percentage 23.03% 38.13%
Swing Increase 16.39 Decrease 6.06
TPP 52.23% 47.77%
TPP swing Increase 52.23 Decrease 12.88

  Third party Fourth party
Candidate David Moulds Peter Wilson
Party Independent Liberal Independent Labor
Popular vote 9,147 7,107
Percentage 13.59% 10.56%
Swing Increase 13.59 Increase 10.56

Cunningham (dark) within New South Wales

MP before election

Stephen Martin

Elected MP

Michael Organ

The 2002 Cunningham by-election was held in the Australian electorate of Cunningham in New South Wales on 19 October 2002. The by-election was triggered by the resignation of the sitting member, the Australian Labor Party's Stephen Martin on 16 August 2002. The writ for the by-election was issued on 16 September 2002.

The by-election was notable as it was won by Michael Organ, the candidate for the Australian Greens, making Cunningham the first seat in the Australian House of Representatives to be won by a minor party since Jack Lang won Reid for his Lang Labor party in 1946, and the first seat in the House won by the Greens.



Cunningham had been held by Labor since its creation 52 years previously, but a recent local government election for Lord Mayor of Wollongong had seen the Labor candidate lose to an independent, Alex Darling, causing concern in the ALP about their ability to hold the seat given the expectation of a significant protest vote against them.[1] The ALP candidate preselected to replace Martin was Sharon Bird.

The Liberal Party of Australia received 28 percent of the primary vote at the previous election, they chose not to run a candidate in the by-election. Independent candidate David Moulds held Liberal Party membership.[2]


The distribution of preferences in the by-election resulted in the election of Michael Organ.
2002 Cunningham by-election[3][4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labor Sharon Bird 25,671 38.13 −6.06
Greens Michael Organ 15,505 23.03 +16.39
Independent Liberal David Moulds 9,147 13.59 +13.59
Independent Labor Peter Wilson 7,107 10.56 +10.56
One Nation Geoff Crocker 2,696 4.00 −0.63
Christian Democrats Owen Nannelli 2,566 3.81 +1.32
Democrats Linda Chapman 1,514 2.25 −4.92
Against Further Immigration David Hughes 889 1.32 +1.32
Independent Meg Sampson 671 1.00 +1.00
Non-Custodial Parents John Flanagan 556 0.83 +0.83
Independent James Keene 483 0.72 +0.72
Socialist Alliance Chris Williams 399 0.59 +0.59
Citizens Electoral Council Hal A. Johnson 120 0.18 +0.18
Total formal votes 67,324 92.26 −2.90
Informal votes 5,647 7.74 +2.90
Turnout 72,971 89.51 −5.91
Two-candidate-preferred result
Greens Michael Organ 35,160 52.23 +52.23
Labor Sharon Bird 32,164 47.77 −12.88
Greens gain from Labor Swing N/A



Although Labor received the highest primary vote, the Australian Greens candidate, Michael Organ, won the by-election on a 52.2 percent two-candidate preferred (2CP) vote. Asymmetrical preference flows in the absence of an official Liberal candidate contributed to Labor losing the seat, with their 2CP being reduced by 12.9 percent. Labor, Liberal and Green all contested Cunningham in the 2004 federal election, Labor won the seat back with a two-party preferred (2PP) vote of over 60 percent. Another example is the 2008 Mayo by-election. However, other factors attributed by some to the loss include Martin's premature departure, a messy preselection process for Bird, and discontent from the NSW Labor branch towards federal leader Simon Crean.[5]

See also



  1. ^ Griffiths, Emma: Labor nervous ahead Cunningham by-election, Lateline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), 18 October 2002.
  2. ^ Bennett, Scott: The Cunningham by-election 2002 Archived 13 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Parliament of Australia, 11 November 2002.
  3. ^ "2002 Cunningham by-election". Psephos Adam Carr's Election Archive. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  4. ^ Green, Antony (7 April 2009). "Fremantle By-election - Should the Liberals Run?". ABC News. Archived from the original on 1 July 2024. Retrieved 1 July 2024. Labor polled 38.1%, the Greens 23.0%, an Independent Labor candidate 10.6% and an Independent Liberal 13.6% with smaller tallies for other candidates.
  5. ^ Green, Antony: Cunningham - Federal Election 2007, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 19 November 2007.